ZigBee Alliance Presenation - UP

ZigBee Alliance Presenation - UP

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee Alliance: http://www.ZigBee.org IEEE 802.15.4: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html The Wireless Market INTERNET/AUDIO LONG TEXT RANGE > 802.11b MULTI-CHANNEL DIGITAL VIDEO 802.15.3/WIMEDIA

802.11a/HL2 & 802.11g ZigBee < SHORT COMPRESSED VIDEO Bluetooth 2 Bluetooth1 LOW < ACTUAL THROUGHPUT > HIGH 2 The Wireless Market (2)

3 What Is the ZigBee Alliance? An organization with a mission to define reliable, cost-effective, low-power, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard Alliance provides Upper layer stack and application profiles Compliance and certification testing Branding Result is a set of interoperable solutions recognizable in the market Eight promoter companies Ember, Freescale, Honeywell, Invensys, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Philips and Samsung A rapidly growing list (Over 120 participants) of industry leaders worldwide

committed to providing ZigBee-compliant products and solutions Companies include semiconductor manufacturers, wireless IP providers, OEMs, and end-users 4 Why Do We Need ZigBee Technology? No standard approach today that addresses the unique needs of most remote monitoring and control applications Enables the broad-based deployment of reliable wireless networks with low-complexity, low-cost solutions Provides the ability to run for years on inexpensive primary batteries for a typical monitoring application

Capable of inexpensively supporting robust mesh networking technologies 5 How Is ZigBee Related to IEEE 802.15.4? ZigBee takes full advantage of a physical radio and MAC layers specified by IEEE 802.15.4 (lower layers) ZigBee adds logical network, security and application software (higher layers) ZigBee continues to work closely with the IEEE to ensure an integrated and complete solution for the market 6 Zigbee target markets 7 Applications

security HVAC AMR lighting control access control patient monitoring fitness monitoring BUILDING AUTOMATION CONSUMER ELECTRONICS TV VCR DVD/CD remote ZigBee PERSONAL HEALTH CARE asset mgt

process control environmental energy mgt Wireless Control that Simply Works INDUSTRIAL CONTROL RESIDENTIAL/ LIGHT COMMERCIAL CONTROL PC & PERIPHERALS mouse keyboard joystick security HVAC lighting control

access control lawn & garden irrigation 8 HVAC Energy Management Hotel energy management Major operating expense for hotel Centralized HVAC management allow hotel operator to make sure empty rooms are not cooled Retrofit capabilities Battery operated t-stats can be placed for convenience Personalized room settings at

check-in 9 Home/Light Commercial Spaces 10 Industrial/Commercial Spaces Warehouses, Fleet management, Factory, Supermarkets, Office complexes Gas/Water/Electric meter, HVAC Smoke, CO, H2O detector Refrigeration case or appliance Equipment management services & Preventative maintenance Security services Lighting control

Assembly line and work flow, Inventory Materials processing systems (heat, gas flow, cooling, chemical) Energy, diagnostics, e-Business services Gateway or Field Service links to sensors & equipment Monitored to suggest PM, product updates, status changes Nodes link to PC for database storage PC Modem calls retailer, Service Provider, or Corp headquarters Corp headquarters remotely monitors assets, billing, energy management

Field Service or mobile worker Temp. Sensor Database Gateway Security Sensor Mfg Flow Back End Server Telephone Cable line Materials handling HVAC Service

Provider Corp Office Retailer 11 Asset Management Within each container, sensors form a mesh network Multiple containers in a ship form a mesh to report sensor data Increased security through on- truck and on-ship tamper detection Faster container processing.

Manifest data and sensor data are known before ship docks at port 12 IEEE 802.15.4 & ZigBee In Context Application Customer API Security 32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption ZigBee the software Network, Security & Application layers

Brand management Alliance Network IEEE 802.15.4 Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY the hardware Physical & Media Access Control layers

868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz Silicon Stack App 13 Frequencies and Data Rates BAND 2.4GHz ISM 868 MHz 915MHz ISM COVERAGE DATA RATE # of CHANNELS Worldwide

250kbps 16 Europe 20kbps 1 Americas 40kbps 10 14 Basic Network Characteristics 65,536 network (client) nodes Optimized for timing-critical applications Network join time:30 ms (typ)

Sleeping slave changing to active: 15 ms (typ) Active slave channel access time: 15 ms (typ) Network coordinator Full Function node Reduced Function node Communications flow Virtual links 15 Comparison of Key Features of Complementary Protocols Feature(s) IEEE 802.11b Bluetooth ZigBee

Power Profile Hours Days Years Complexity Very Complex Complex Simple Nodes/Master 32 7 64000 Latency

Enumeration up to 3 Seconds Enumeration up to 10 seconds Enumeration 30ms Range 100 m 10m 70m-300m Extendibility Roaming Possible No YES Data Rate

11Mbps 1 Mbps 250Kbps Security Authentication Service Set ID (SSID), WEP 64 bit, 128 bit 128 bit AES and Application Layer user defined 16 Why ZigBee? Reliable and self healing Supports large number of nodes Easy to deploy Very long battery life Secure Low cost Can be used globally

17 IEEE 802.15.4 Tutorial IEEE 802.15.4 Basics 802.15.4 is a simple packet data protocol for lightweight wireless networks Channel Access is via Carrier Sense Multiple Access with collision avoidance and optional time slotting Message acknowledgement and an optional beacon structure Multi-level security Three bands, 27 channels specified 2.4 GHz: 16 channels, 250 kbps 868.3 MHz : 1 channel, 20 kbps 902-928 MHz: 10 channels, 40 kbps

Works well for Long battery life, selectable latency for controllers, sensors, remote monitoring and portable electronics Configured for maximum battery life, has the potential to last as long as the shelf life of most batteries 19 802.15.4 General Characteristics Data rates of 250 kb/s, 40 kb/s and 20 kb/s. Star or Peer-to-Peer operation. Support for low latency devices. CSMA-CA channel access. Dynamic device addressing. Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability. Low power consumption. Frequency Bands of Operation, either: 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM band;

Or 10 channels in the 915MHz ISM band and 1 channel in the European 868MHz band. 802.15.4 Architecture Upper Layers Other LLC IEEE 802.2 LLC IEEE 802.15.4 MAC IEEE 802.15.4 868/915 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.4 2400 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Operating Frequency Bands

868MHz / 915MHz PHY 2.4 GHz PHY 2.4 GHz Channel 0 Channels 1-10 868.3 MHz 902 MHz Channels 11-26 2 MHz 928 MHz 5 MHz 2.4835 GHz

22 IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Packet Structure PHY Packet Fields Preamble (32 bits) synchronization Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits) PHY Header (8 bits) PSDU length PSDU (0 to 1016 bits) Data field Preamble Start of Packet Delimiter 6 Octets PHY Header

PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 0-127 Octets 23 IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Modulation/Spreading 2.4 GHz PHY 250 kb/s (4 bits/symbol, 62.5 kBaud) Data modulation is 16-ary orthogonal modulation 16 symbols are orthogonal set of 32-chip PN codes Chip modulation is O-QPSK at 2.0 Mchips/s 868MHz/915MHz PHY Symbol Rate 868 MHz Band: 20 kb/s (1 bit/symbol, 20 kBaud) 915 MHz Band: 40 kb/s (1 bit/symbol, 40 kBaud) Data modulation is BPSK with differential encoding

Spreading code is a 15-chip m-sequence Chip modulation is BPSK at 868 MHz Band: 300 kchips/s 915 MHz Band: 600 kchips/s 24 IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Common Parameters Transmit Power Capable of at least .5 mW Transmit Center Frequency Tolerance 40 ppm Receiver Sensitivity (Packet Error Rate <1%) <-85 dBm @ 2.4 GHz band <-92 dBm @ 868/915 MHz band RSSI Measurements Packet strength indication Clear channel assessment Dynamic channel selection 25

IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview PHY Primitives PHY Data Service PD-DATA exchange data packets between MAC and PHY PHY Management Service PLME-CCA clear channel assessment PLME-ED - energy detection PLME-GET / -SET retrieve/set PHY PIB parameters PLME-TRX-ENABLE enable/disable transceiver 26 PHY Performance 802.15.4 has excellent performance in low SNR environments Bluetooth

27 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Design Drivers Extremely low cost Ease of implementation Reliable data transfer Short range operation Very low power consumption Simple but flexible protocol 28 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Employs 64-bit IEEE & 16-bit short addresses Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than well probably need) Using local addressing, simple networks of more than 65,000 (2^16) nodes can be configured, with reduced address overhead Three devices specified

Network Coordinator Full Function Device (FFD) Reduced Function Device (RFD) Simple frame structure Reliable delivery of data Association/disassociation AES-128 security CSMA-CA channel access Optional superframe structure with beacons Optional GTS mechanism 29 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Device Classes

Full function device (FFD) Any topology Network coordinator capable Talks to any other device Reduced function device (RFD) Limited to star topology Cannot become a network coordinator

Talks only to a network coordinator Very simple implementation 30 Topology Models Star Mesh PAN coordinator Full Function Device Reduced Function Device Cluster Tree 31 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Star Topology PAN Coordinator

Master/slave Full function device Communications flow Reduced function device 32 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Peer-Peer (Mesh) Topology Point to point Full function device Cluster tree Communications flow 33 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Combined Topology Clustered stars - for example, cluster nodes exist between rooms of a hotel and each room has a star network for control.

Full function device Communications flow Reduced function device 34 Mesh Networking Coordinator (FFD) Router (FFD) End Device (RFD or FFD) Mesh Link Star Link 35 Cluster Tree 36 Star Network Key Attributes Simplicity Low Cost

Long Battery Life Single Point of Failure Node Controller Repeater (optional) 37 Mesh Network Key Attributes Reliability Extended Range No Battery Life Routing Complexity Router Node Controller 38 Hybrid Network Key Attributes

Flexibility Reliability/Range of Mesh Battery Life of Star Design Complexity Router Node Node Controller 39 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Addressing All devices have 64 bit IEEE addresses Short addresses can be allocated Addressing modes: Network + device identifier (star) Source/destination identifier (peer-peer)

40 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview General Frame Structure PHY Layer MAC Layer Payload Synch. Header (SHR) MAC Header (MHR) MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU) MAC Footer (MFR) MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU)

PHY Header (PHR) PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 4 Types of MAC Frames: Data Frame Acknowledgment Frame MAC Command Frame Beacon Frame 41 Data Frame format One of two most basic and important structures in 802.15.4 Provides up to 104 byte data payload capacity Data sequence numbering to ensure that packets are tracked Robust structure improves reception in difficult conditions Frame Check Sequence (FCS) validates error-free data 42

Acknowledgement Frame Format The other most important structure for 15.4 Provides active feedback from receiver to sender that packet was received without error Short packet that takes advantage of standards-specified quiet time immediately after data packet transmission 43 MAC Command Frame format Mechanism for remote control/configuration of client nodes Allows a centralized network manager to configure individual clients no matter how large the network 44 Beacon Frame format Beacons add a new level of functionality to a network Client devices can wake up only when a beacon is to be broadcast, listen for their address, and if not

heard, return to sleep Beacons are important for mesh and cluster tree networks to keep all of the nodes synchronized without requiring nodes to consume precious battery energy listening for long periods of time 45 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Optional Superframe Structure GTS 2 Contention Access Period GTS 1 Contention Free Period 15ms * 2n where 0 n 14 Network beacon Contention period Guaranteed Time Slot

Transmitted by network coordinator. Contains network information, frame structure and notification of pending node messages. Access by any node using CSMA-CA Reserved for nodes requiring guaranteed bandwidth 46 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Traffic Types Periodic data Intermittent data Application defined rate (e.g. sensors)

Application/external stimulus defined rate (e.g. light switch) Repetitive low latency data Allocation of time slots (e.g. mouse) 47 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview MAC Data Service Recipient MAC Originator MAC MCPS-DATA.request Originator Recipient Channel access

Data frame Acknowledgement (if requested) MCPS-DATA.indication MCPS-DATA.confirm 48 IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview MAC Primitives MAC Data Service MCPS-DATA exchange data packets between MAC and PHY MCPS-PURGE purge an MSDU from the transaction queue MAC Management Service

MLME-ASSOCIATE/DISASSOCIATE network association MLME-SYNC / SYNC-LOSS - device synchronization MLME-SCAN - scan radio channels MLME- COMM-STATUS communication status MLME-GET / -SET retrieve/set MAC PIB parameters MLME-START / BEACON-NOTIFY beacon management MLME-POLL - beaconless synchronization MLME-GTS - GTS management MLME-RESET request for MLME to perform reset MLME-ORPHAN - orphan device management MLME-RX-ENABLE - enabling/disabling of radio system 49 802.15.4 MAC Layer Specs CSMA-CA (like 802.11) channel access scheme Unlike 802.11 no RTS/CTS mechanism (due to relatively low data rate collisions are much less likely) Different Modes of Operation Depending on Nature of Traffic

Periodic Transmissions Beacon Mode Intermittent Transmissions Disconnection Mode, node not attached to network when it doesn't need to communicate (energy savings!) Low Latency Transmissions Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS), allows for device to get an assigned time slot in super frame (a TDMA scheme) 16 bit short addressing scheme or 64bit long addressing scheme Four MAC frame types: Beacon Frame Data Frame

ACK Frame MAC Command Frame 50 Non-Beacon Mode (Unslotted CSMA-CA) Coordinator Node Coordinator Node Data Request Data frame Acknowledgemen t

Acknowledgement Data frame (opcional) Acknowledgemen t Data to Coordinator Data from Coordinator Coordinator always active, Node with low duty cycle 51 Beacon Mode (Slotted CSMA-CA) Coordinator Node Beacon Data frame Acknowledgement (opcioanl)

Coordinator Node Beacon Data Request Acknowledgemen t Data frame Acknowledgemen t Data to Coordinator Data from Coordinator Nodes synchronized with Coordinator 52 Peer-Peer Transfer Node 1 Node 2

Data frame Acknowledgement Nodes synchronized with each other 53 Network Layer Functions Starting a network able to establish a new network Joining and Leaving Network nodes are able to become members of the network as well as quit being members Configuration Ability of the node to configure its stack to operate in accordance with the network type Addressing The ability of a ZigBee coordinator to assign addresses to devices joining the network Synchronization ability of a node to synchronize with another node by listening for beacons or polling for data Security ability to ensure end-to-end integrity of frames Routing nodes can properly route frames to their destination (AODV, etc.)

54 Application Support Layer Functions Zigbee Device Object (ZDO) maintains what the device is capable of doing and makes binding requests based on these capabilities Discovery Ability to determine which other devices are operating in the operating space of this device Binding Ability to match two or more devices together based on their services and their needs and allow them to communicate 55 Binding EP Endpoint (subunit of a node) 56 MicaZ,TinyOS, and Zigbee

57 Micaz Crossbow MicaZ motes use the 802.15.4 standard defined in 2003 MicaZ motes do not use the network and application layers defined by the Zigbee Alliances network and application layers Zigbee upper layers had not been finalized in time MicaZ motes are using TinyOS 1.1.7 and Crossbows mesh networking stack 58 MicaZ Network & Application layers Network Layer: Any Network Layer/ Routing Algorithm can be implemented

in TinyOS Many available already Application Layer open-source TinyOS supported Applications can be developed for use with TinyOS 59 More 802.15.4 Specs MicaZ Power Consumption 30 W during sleep 33 mW while active MicaZ Lifetime

~ 1 year (Zigbee specifies up to 2 years) MicaZ Range 75 100 m (outdoors) 20 30 m (indoors) 60 MICAz MOTE IEEE 802.15.4 250 kbps radio 128KB program flash memory 512KB measurement log memory (xbow estimates > 100000 samples) 10 bit Analog to Digital Converter Red, Green, & Yellow LEDs 61 TinyOS

Open Source Operating System designed for MOTEs Programs written in an extension of C called nesC TinyOS is event driven nesC - wire together components that handle events/fire commands through interfaces to build an application (highly modular) Preinstalled (8 motes) Surge ad-hoc multi-hop (Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector routing) software (xbow) written in nesC 62 Simulation Tools TOSSIM - TinyOS simulator simulates application code more so than a network simulation like ns2, Opnet

TinyViz - graphical interface for TOSSIM can be extended with plug- ins 63 Most important characteristics of WSN Survey conducted mid-2002 on the characteristics of a wireless sensor network most important to its users: Data Reliability Battery Life Cost

Transmission Range Data Rate Data Latency Physical Size Data Security 64 Designing with 802.15.4 and ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 vs Bluetooth

Motorola 802.15.4 / ZigBee features 2.4 GHz Band, -92 dBm RX sensitivity at 1% PER IEEE requirement is at least 85 dBm Power supply 2.0-3.6 V w/ on-chip regulator, logic interface 1.7 to 3.3 Runs off a single Li or 2 alkaline cells Complete RF transceiver data modem antenna in, fully packetized data out Data and control interface via standard SPI at 4 MHz minimum 802.15.4 MAC supplied

Four new Motorola HCS08 MCUs will interoperate with the data modem chip Often 802.15.4 functionality can be added to existing systems simply by including the modem chip and reprogramming an existing MCU that may already be in the application HC08 RAM/FLASH configurations from 384B/4kB to 2kB/60kB depending upon application SW needs 66 System Simplicity and Flexibility Motorola RF Packet Radio Motorola 8-Bit MCU 67 Motorolas 802.15.4 Platform Advantages One-Stop-Shop Solution

Single source for platform solution Integrated Circuits, Reference Designs, Modules, Stack Software, Development Systems Key technology enhancements provide for a superior solution Excellent adjacent channel rejection No external filtering required under most conditions High Sensitivity Radio Solution 7 dBm better than spec longer range Extended Temperature Operating Range -40C to +85C for industrial and automotive applications Operating voltage range optimized for alkaline or lithium primary cells 2.0 Vdc to 3.6 Vdc, disposable Nearly 100% of available battery life whether Alkaline or Lithium Normal 2.7v EOL silicon systems can only get perhaps 30% of available alkaline battery

energy Adjustable TX Output power Improved coexistence for short range applications IEEE Participation and ZigBee Alliance leadership Technology and standards driver Early access to new technology 68 IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee and Bluetooth Instantaneous Power Consumption 15.4 Transceivers are similar to Bluetooth Transceivers 802.15.4 O-QPSK with shaping Max data rate 250kbps over the air

2Mchips/s over the air Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (62.5ksps*32 spread) -92 dBm sensitivity nominal 40ppm xtal Bluetooth FSK Max data rate 720kbps over the air 1Msps over the air Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum (79 channels @ 1600 hps) -83 to -84 dBm sensitivity nominal 20ppm xtal Instantaneous power consumption will be similar for the raw transceivers without protocol Bluetooths FHSS makes it impractical to create extended networks without large synchronization cost 69 IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol Built for the Mission 15.4 Protocol was developed for very different reasons than Bluetooth 802.15.4

Very low duty cycle, very long primary battery life applications as well as mainspowered Static and dynamic mesh, cluster tree and star network structures with potentially a very large number (>>65534) of client units, low latency available as required Ability to remain quiescent for long periods of time without communicating to the network Bluetooth Moderate duty cycle, secondary battery operation where battery lasts about the same as master unit Wire replacement for consumer devices that need moderate data rates with very high QoS and very low, guaranteed latency Quasi-static star network structure with up to 7 clients (and ability to participate in more than one network simultaneously) Generally used in applications where either power is cycled (headsets, cellphones) or mains-powered (printers, car kits) Protocol differences can lead to tremendous optimizations in power consumption 70 Peel-n-Stick Security Sensors Battery Operation

2 AA Alkaline or 1 Li-AA cell 802.15.4/ZigBee Mode Non-beacon network environment Sensor process RC Oscillator waking up MCU and doing network check-in at some interval Vcc SPI 4 802.15.4 XCVR CLK SPI OSC1

Vcc 3Vdc MCU IRQ Many security systems have between ~10 second and ~15 minute requirement On a sensor event, device immediately awakens and reports in to network 16.000MHz Security Sensor 71

Security Sensor Timing Battery-Powered Sensor Mains-Powered Router Interval timer expires: Wake Up Check-in only ~1640s Event and Get Data ~2300s 256s CCAx2 192s RX>TX ~650s TX

RX 192s TX>RX RX>TX ~350s ACK RX ACK TX OPT: Pending ON ~650s RX Data TX Data Set Interval timer Sleep 72

802.15.4 Security Sensor Any check-in interval exceeding ~14 sec allows sensor to surpass alkaline battery shelf life Only at 15-min interval does BT reach battery shelf life 73 Body-Worn Medical Sensors Heartbeat Sensor Battery-operated using CR2032 Li-Coin cell heartbeat 802.15.4/ZigBee Mode

Network environment using Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) Network beacons occurring either every 960ms or 61.44s (closest values to 1 and 60 s) GTS Beacon time Sensor has two ongoing processes Heartbeat time logging Transmit heartrate and other information (8 bytes total) Instantaneous and average heart rate Body temperature and battery voltage Vcc Vcc 802.15.4

XCVR SPI IRQ/ RESET 16.000MHz 4 SPI 3Vdc MCU INT OSC1 OSC2 32.768kHz IRQ

Heartbeat Sensor 74 IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee vs Bluetooth At beacon interval ~60s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life approx 416 days 802.15.4/ZigBee more battery-effective at all beacon intervals greater than 0.246s At beacon interval ~1s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life 85 days Bluetooth 30 days (park mode @ 1.28s) 75 Summary IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee

Designer concentrates on end application Silicon vendors and ZigBee Alliance take care of transceiver, RF channel and protocol Reliable and robust communications Flexible network architectures Very long primary battery life (months to years to decades) Very inexpensive Bill Of Materials Low system complexity for the OEM More Information Motorola: www.motorola.com/zigbee ZigBee: www.zigbee.org 76 Low Data Rate Wireless Evolution First Stage

2002 2003 Second Stage 2004 2005 2006 Third Stage 2007 2008 2009+ Proprietary Dominates Proprietary Fades Standards Dominate IEEE 802.15.4 Emerges ZigBee Emerges IEEE 1451.5 Emerges

Semiconductor Focus OEM Focus System Integrator Focus Leading Edge OEMs Early Adopter OEMs Wireless Ubiquitous $.1 - $1B Industry $1 - $10B Industry $10 - $100B+ Industry $1,000 - $100 Unit Cost $100 - $10 Unit Cost $10 - $1 Unit Cost 77 Market Name Standard Application Focus Wireless Networking

Standards GPRS/GSM Wi-Fi Bluetooth ZigBee 1xRTT/CDMA 802.11b 802.15.1 802.15.4 Wide Area Voice & Data Web, Email, Video Cable Replacement Monitoring & Control

System Resources 16MB+ 1MB+ 250KB+ 4KB - 32KB Battery Life (days) 1-7 .5 - 5 1-7 100 - 1,000+ Network Size 1 32

7 255 / 65,000 Bandwidth (KB/s) 64 - 128+ 11,000+ 720 20 - 250 Transmission Range (meters) 1,000+ 1 - 100 1 - 10+ 1 - 100+ Success Metrics

Reach, Quality Speed, Flexibility Cost, Convenience Reliability, Power, Cost 78 IEEE 802.15.4 Key Features High Data Reliability DSSS, bi-directional, message acknowledgement, low latency Beacon mode enables Guaranteed Time Slots (priority comm.)

Advanced Power Management Typical monitoring applications good for shelf life of battery Inherent Data Security Data encryption, message authentication, packet freshness Protocol Simplicity 79 ZigBee Overview

Specifications Managed by the ZigBee Alliance Global consortium of OEMs, IC vendors & tech companies Specify device, network and service discovery / pairing Defining Star, Mesh & Cluster-Tree Networks Defining Security Management Allows users to balance system cost, reliability & battery life Extends 32-, 64- & 128-bit AES encryption of 802.15.4 Defining Application Profiles & Brand

Compliance Ensures product & application interoperability (e.g., AMR & DSM) 80 Dimensionamento das ligaes rdio Free space loss L = 32.4 + 20 x Log F(MHz) + 20 x Log D(Km) 2.4 GHz => L = 100 + 20 x Log D(Km) 860 MHz => L = 91 + 20 x Log D(Km) Link budget (2.4 GHz) : Pr = Pe 100 - 20 x Log D(Km) + Gae + Gar - Ploss D(Km) = 10 (Pe Prmin - 100 + Gae + Gar-Ploss)/20 Zigbee: Prmin= -85 dBm, Ga=0 Ploss=0=> Pe= 0dBm (1mW) => D= 0,18 Km Pe= 10dBm (10mW) => D= 0,56 Km

Pe= 20dBm (100mW) => D= 1.8 Km D(Km) = 10 (Pe 15)/20 81

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