Year 8 English Exam Review 2013 Spelling Rules 1. Using I Before E Use i before e, except after c, or when sounded as "a" as in "neighbour" and "weigh." EXAMPLES: believe, chief, piece, and thief; deceive, receive, weigh, and freight COMMON EXCEPTIONS: efficient, weird, height, neither, ancient, caffeine, foreign Spelling Rules
2. Dropping the Final E Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. EXAMPLES: ride + ing = riding guide + ance = guidance hope + ing = hoping entire + ly = entirely like + ness = likeness arrange + ment = arrangement COMMON EXCEPTIONS: truly, noticeable Spelling Rules
Changing a Final Y to I Change a final y to i before a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. EXAMPLES: defy + ance = defiance party + es = parties pity + ful = pitiful try + es = tries try + ing = trying copy + ing = copying occupy + ing = occupying COMMON EXCEPTIONS: journeying, memorize
Spelling Rules Doubling a Final Consonant Double a final single consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel when both of these conditions exist: (a) a single vowel precedes the consonant; (b) the consonant ends an accented syllable or a one-syllable word. EXAMPLES: stop + ing = stopping admit + ed = admitted occur + ence = occurrence stoop + ing = stooping benefit + ed = benefited
delight + ful = delightful 26 Most misspelled words Separate Definitely Manoeuvre Embarrass Occurrence Consensus Unnecessary Acceptable Commitment Referred
Accidentally Bureaucracy Supersede Questionnaire Connoisseur A lot Entrepreneur Particularly Liquefy Conscience Parallel Independent
Weird Harass Harassment Tensepast, present, future Past tense: Verbs that take place in the past. Present tense: Verbs that take place in the present. Future tense: Verbs that will take place in the future Past Present
Future Walked walking Will walk Played playing Will play
Adjectives Describing words that describe a noun Can you think of a word to describe your hair? Can you think of words to describe the sky? Can you think of words to describe a man? Can you think of words to describe a table? Adverbs Words that describes or modifies the verb The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes. The midwives waited patiently through a long labour. Jenny walks carefully to avoid falling.
Bob accidentally broke the vase. What is an adverb for walked? What is an adverb for swam? Homonyms and Homophones HOMONYM Words that have same spelling and sound but different meaning E.g. Bark and Bark Do you know any more? HOMOPHONE Words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meaning
E.g. Sea and See Do you know any more? Antonyms and Synonyms Antonyms words that mean the opposite Find antonyms for these words cold happy funny night
bright Synonyms words that are similar Find synonyms for these words white sad pleasant thin
dirty Figurative language Personification giving an inanimate object or concept human traits E.g. The wind playfully lifted the cloth and flipped it over. Simile a phrase that compares two things as being alike (as or like) E.g. Her hair was like springs. Metaphor a figure of speech that speaks of one thing as though it is the other E.g. The man is a snake. Alliteration a phrase of a series of words that start with the same letter E.g. Big Bold Bandit Reading Comprehension
Media Texts use persuasive techniques to influence the reader Some of the various types of persuasive texts include: 1) News articles 2) Editorials 3) Letter to the Editor 4) Advertisement 5) Magazine article You will be asked to read and identify the techniques in a Media text Persuasive Techniques 1) Appeals what is the writer trying to appeal to?
- Logical (Logos) - Emotional (Pathos) - Ethical (Ethos) Appeals to LOGIC (LOGOS) Techniques usually factual Expert opinion Research Anecdotes Reputable sources - references and experts Appeals to common sense and rationality: Cause and effect statements and logical conclusions:
Recognition of opposing viewpoints Appeals to EMOTION (PATHOS) - Techniques Selection of words with specific connotations Sound language alliteration, colloquial or idioms, repetition, cliches Generalisations (Stereotypes) Hyperbole or exaggeration Inclusive language Rhetorical questions Appeal to values (family, justice or fairness, modernity, vanity, generosity, hip pocket,
humanitarianism, belonging, patriotism, tradition) Pathos appeals to emotion a) Nostalgia: Nostalgia is the feeling one gets when they look back on the past fondly. Often, appeals to nostalgia are used to justify a return to older, simpler times. b) Guilt: Guilt is a powerful emotion and writers who make their audience feel guilty about an issue (and, in particular, about not acting upon an issue) can be very persuasive c) Sympathy/empathy: Encouraging people to feel sympathy for someone (sorry for them) or empathy (put themselves in anothers shoes) d) Fear: Appeals to fear may rely on fear of physical violence or death; of loss of security, family, stability, money, safety; of change; of a specified negative event. e) Compassion: A description of the plight of the underprivileged is designed to
appeal to the readers sense of compassion it aims to make them feel outraged, sorry, or upset. Whatever the emotion elicited, the aim is to cause the reader to feel like they want to take some action in response to the situation Pathos appeals Once you have identified the emotional appeal, you should be able to identify its effect, as the author is trying to position you to feel a particular way about their topic. Appeals to ETHICS(ETHOS)
Well-informed about the topic Confident in his or her position Sincere, honest, respectable and trustworthy Understanding of the reader's concerns and possible objections On the readers side Reasonable and rational Humane and considerate THESE ARE DELIBERATE TECHNIQUES USED TO PERSUADE Visuals can persuade to Images, such as pictures or graphics are included in some texts They should be part of the analysis as they do not have a
contention or support the contention of the author They may contain symbols that represent something in relation to the text OR establish a tone or mood for the text Look at how the visual and caption work together to convey an idea Is the caption a loaded statement? Things to look for in articles Words that indicate TONE EMOTIVE LANGUAGE (adjectives) Words that indicate a POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CONNOTATION APPEALS what are being used? LOADED WORDS or PHRASES that position the reader
EXPERT OPINIONS that give credibility to article ATTACK OR PRAISE depending on contention INCLUSIVE OR EXCLUSIVE language EXAGGERATION or HYPERBOLE ANECDOTAL STORIES or ANALOGIES of other cases or situations used for comparison GENERALISATIONS or creating STEREOTYPES from a few examples SOLUTION offered to help Persuasive techniques
Rhetorical question Repetition
Exaggeration hyperbole Similes and metaphors Appeal to fear, greed, logic, patriotism, fairness, justice, safety Praise and attack Inclusive language Emotive language (adjectives, adverbs) Statistics Expert opinions Eye-witnesses quotes Examples or anecdotal stories Comparisons or contrasts Biased or Unbiased?
Biased - unfairly prejudiced for or against someone or something Unbiased - showing no prejudice for or against something; impartial - Is there any missing information? How does the writer treat people they have written about? Are some quotes explained or embellished? Has a tone been created by the writer that may influence? Have loaded words or statements (buzz words) been used? Has the writer tried to identify, include or stereotype the reader? How are people portrayed in the image? Is the opposite to this story represented? Are the statistics reliable?
Is the headline suggestive or leading? Is there another agenda associated to this article (Political)? Idiomwhat is it? An idiom is a word or phrase which means something different from its literal meaning. They mean something more than what they appear to mean They are usually used in a text to emphasise something E.g. All Bark And No Bite: When someone is threatening and/or aggressive but not willing to engage in a fight. All Greek to me: Meaningless and incomprehensible like someone who cannot read, speak, or understand any of the Greek language would be. All In The Same Boat:
When everyone is facing the same challenges. An Arm And A Leg: Very expensive. A large amount of money. Essays Are a discussion with the reader that should show your knowledge and understanding of 1) The studied text 2) The question being asked They must consider the reader and provide sufficient detail, signposting and linking across the essay.
Structure of the essay TEEL structure for body paragraphs T Topic sentence E Explain E Evidence or example L Link back to topic Can use Firstly, secondly and thirdly but literary essays do
not need these indicators. Words for essays Character conveys The author emphasises Suggests Character portrays Theme is represented This can be highlighted The character represents This symbolises The main message communicated is
The author appears to be questioning Promotes Indicates Advocates 8AR questions to plan Using Tomorrow, When the War Beganplan and essay for How did the relationships between the characters change them? What are the main themes in the book and what is the author trying to show us?
8AR question to plan Using The Hunger Games, plan an essay for the question What are some key themes in the film, how are they emphasised and why are they important? 8BR questions to plan Using Stevensons Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, plan an essay for the following topic What is the overall moral(s) presented in this book and how is it (they) presented? 8BR questions to plan
Using Mockingbird plan an essay for the following question What is the Mockingbird representative of? What social significance does this allegory have? 8BR questions to plan Using both novels plan an essay for the following question What themes in both books have social significance today?
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