# William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security 5/e

Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 4 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown Chapter 4 Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields The next morning at daybreak, Star flew indoors, seemingly keen for a lesson. I said, "Tap eight." She did a brilliant exhibition, first tapping it in 4, 4, then giving me a hasty glance and doing it in 2, 2, 2, 2, before coming for her nut. It is astonishing that Star learned to count up to 8 with no difficulty, and of her own accord discovered that each number could be given with various different divisions, this leaving no doubt that she was consciously thinking each number. In fact, she did mental arithmetic, although unable, like humans, to name the numbers. But she learned to recognize their spoken

names almost immediately and was able to remember the sounds of the names. Star is unique as a wild bird, who of her own free will pursued the science of numbers with keen interest and astonishing intelligence. Living with Birds, Len Howard Introduction will now introduce finite fields of increasing importance in cryptography AES, Elliptic Curve, IDEA, Public Key concern operations on numbers where what constitutes a number and the type of operations varies considerably

start with basic number theory concepts Divisors say a non-zero number b divides a if for some m have a=mb (a,b,m all integers) that is b divides into a with no remainder denote this b|a and say that b is a divisor of a eg. all of 1,2,3,4,6,8,12,24 divide 24 eg. 13 | 182; 5 | 30; 17 | 289; 3 | 33; 17 | 0 Properties of Divisibility If a|1, then a = 1. If a|b and b|a, then a = b. Any b /= 0 divides 0. If a | b and b | c, then a | c

e.g. 11 | 66 and 66 | 198 so 11 | 198 If b|g and b|h, then b|(mg + nh) for arbitrary integers m and n e.g. b = 7; g = 14; h = 63; m = 3; n = 2 7|14 and 7|63 hence 7 | 42+126 = 168 Division Algorithm if divide a by n get integer quotient q and integer remainder r such that:

a = qn + r where 0 <= r < n; q = floor(a/n) remainder r often referred to as a residue Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) a common problem in number theory GCD (a,b) of a and b is the largest integer that divides evenly into both a and b eg GCD(60,24) = 12 define gcd(0, 0) = 0 often want no common factors (except 1) define such numbers as relatively prime

eg GCD(8,15) = 1 hence 8 & 15 are relatively prime Example GCD(1970,1066) 1970 = 1 x 1066 + 904 1066 = 1 x 904 + 162 904 = 5 x 162 + 94 162 = 1 x 94 + 68 94 = 1 x 68 + 26 68 = 2 x 26 + 16 26 = 1 x 16 + 10 16 = 1 x 10 + 6 10 = 1 x 6 + 4 6 = 1 x 4 + 2 4 = 2 x 2 + 0 gcd(1066, 904)

gcd(904, 162) gcd(162, 94) gcd(94, 68) gcd(68, 26) gcd(26, 16) gcd(16, 10) gcd(10, 6) gcd(6, 4) gcd(4, 2) gcd(2, 0) GCD(1160718174, 316258250) Dividend a = 1160718174 b = 316258250 r1 = 211943424 r2 = 104314826 r3 = 3313772 r4 = 1587894

r5 = 137984 r6 = 70070 r7 = 67914 r8 = 2156 Divisor b = 316258250 r1 = 211943424 r2 = 104314826 r3 = 3313772 r4 = 1587894 r5 = 137984 r6 = 70070 r7 = 67914 r8 = 2156 r9 = 1078 Quotient q1 = 3

q2 = 1 q3 = 2 q4 = 31 q5 = 2 q6 = 11 q7 = 1 q8 = 1 q9 = 31 q10 = 2 Remainder r1 = 211943424 r2 = 104314826 r3 = 3313772 r4 = 1587894 r5 = 137984 r6 = 70070 r7 = 67914 r8 = 2156

r9 = 1078 r10 = 0 Modular Arithmetic define modulo operator a mod n to be remainder when a is divided by n where integer n is called the modulus b is called a residue of a mod n since with integers can always write: a = qn + b

usually chose smallest positive remainder as residue ie. 0 <= b <= n-1 process is known as modulo reduction eg. -12 mod 7 = -5 mod 7 = 2 mod 7 = 9 mod 7 a & b are congruent if: a mod n = b mod n when divided by n, a & b have same remainder eg. 100 mod 11 = 34 mod 11 so 100 is congruent to 34 mod 11

Modular Arithmetic Operations can perform arithmetic with residues uses a finite number of values, and loops back from either end Zn = {0, 1, . . . , (n 1)} modular arithmetic is when do addition & multiplication and modulo reduce answer can do reduction at any point, ie a+b mod n = [a mod n + b mod n] mod n Modular Arithmetic Operations [(a mod n) + (b = (a + b) mod n 2. [(a mod n) (b = (a b) mod n

3. [(a mod n) x (b = (a x b) mod n 1. mod n)] mod n mod n)] mod n mod n)] mod n e.g. [(11 mod 8) + (15 mod 8)] mod 8 = 10 mod 8 = 2 (11 + 15) mod 8 = 26 mod 8 = 2 [(11 mod 8) (15 mod 8)] mod 8 = 4 mod 8 = 4 (11 15) mod 8 = 4 mod 8 = 4 [(11 mod 8) x (15 mod 8)] mod 8 = 21 mod 8 = 5 (11 x 15) mod 8 = 165 mod 8 = 5 Modulo 8 Addition Example + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 3 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2

4 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 5 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Modulo 8 Multiplication + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6 3 0 3 6 1 4 7 2 5 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 5 0 5 2 7 4 1 6 3 6 0 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 7 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Modular Arithmetic Properties Euclidean Algorithm

an efficient way to find the GCD(a,b) uses theorem that: GCD(a,b) = GCD(b, a mod b) Euclidean Algorithm to compute GCD(a,b) is: Euclid(a,b) if (b=0) then return a; else return Euclid(b, a mod b); Extended Euclidean Algorithm calculates not only GCD but x & y:

ax + by = d = gcd(a, b) useful for later crypto computations follow sequence of divisions for GCD but assume at each step i, can find x &y: r = ax + by at end find GCD value and also x & y if GCD(a,b)=1 these values are inverses Finding Inverses EXTENDED EUCLID(m, b) 1. (A1, A2, A3)=(1, 0, m); (B1, B2, B3)=(0, 1, b) 2. if B3 = 0 return A3 = gcd(m, b); no inverse 3. if B3 = 1 return B3 = gcd(m, b); B2 = b1 mod m 4. Q = A3 div B3 5. (T1, T2, T3)=(A1 Q B1, A2 Q B2, A3 Q B3) 6. (A1, A2, A3)=(B1, B2, B3)

7. (B1, B2, B3)=(T1, T2, T3) 8. goto 2 Inverse of 550 in GF(1759) Q A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3

1 0 1759 0 1 550 3 0 1

550 1 3 109 5 1 3 109 5 16

5 21 5 16 5 106 339 4 1

106 339 4 111 355 1 355 is inverse of 550 Group a set S of elements or numbers may be finite or infinite

with some operation . so G=(S,.) Obeys CAIN: Closure: a,b in S, then a.b in S Associative law: (a.b).c = a.(b.c) has Identity e: e.a = a.e = a has iNverses a-1: a.a-1 = e if commutative a.b = b.a

then forms an abelian group Cyclic Group define exponentiation as repeated application of operator example: a3 = a.a.a and let identity be: e=a0 a group is cyclic if every element is a power of some fixed element a

i.e., b = ak for some a and every b in group a is said to be a generator of the group Ring a set of numbers with two operations (addition and multiplication) which form: an abelian group with addition operation and multiplication:

has closure is associative distributive over addition: a(b+c) = ab + ac if multiplication operation is commutative, it forms a commutative ring if multiplication operation has an identity and no zero divisors, it forms an integral domain Field a set of numbers with two operations which form: abelian group for addition

abelian group for multiplication (ignoring 0) ring have hierarchy with more axioms/laws group -> ring -> field Group, Ring, Field Finite (Galois) Fields finite fields play a key role in cryptography can show number of elements in a finite field must be a power of a prime pn known as Galois fields

denoted GF(pn) in particular often use the fields: GF(p) GF(2n) Galois Fields GF(p) GF(p) is the set of integers {0,1, , p-1} with arithmetic operations modulo prime p these form a finite field since have multiplicative inverses find inverse with Extended Euclidean algorithm hence arithmetic is well-behaved and can

do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division without leaving the field GF(p) GF(7) Multiplication Example 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 0 2 4 6 1 3 5 3 0 3 6 2 5 1 4 4 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 5 0 5 3 1 6 4 2 6 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 Polynomial Arithmetic can compute using polynomials f(x) = anxn + an-1xn-1 + + a1x + a0 = aixi n.b. not interested in any specific value of x which is known as the indeterminate

several alternatives available ordinary polynomial arithmetic poly arithmetic with coefs mod p poly arithmetic with coefs mod p and polynomials mod m(x) Ordinary Polynomial Arithmetic add or subtract corresponding coefficients multiply all terms by each other eg let f(x) = x3 + x2 + 2 and g(x) = x2 x + 1 f(x) + g(x) = x3 + 2x2 x + 3 f(x) g(x) = x3 + x + 1

f(x) x g(x) = x5 + 3x2 2x + 2 Polynomial Arithmetic with Modulo Coefficients when computing value of each coefficient do calculation modulo some value forms a polynomial ring could be modulo any prime but we are most interested in mod 2 ie all coefficients are 0 or 1 eg. let f(x) = x3 + x2 and g(x) = x2 + x + 1 f(x) + g(x) = x3 + x + 1 f(x) x g(x) = x5 + x2

Polynomial Division can write any polynomial in the form: f(x) = q(x) g(x) + r(x) can interpret r(x) as being a remainder r(x) = f(x) mod g(x) if have no remainder say g(x) divides f(x) if g(x) has no divisors other than itself & 1 say it is irreducible (or prime) polynomial arithmetic modulo an irreducible polynomial forms a field

Polynomial GCD can find greatest common divisor for polys c(x) = GCD(a(x), b(x)) if c(x) is the poly of greatest degree which divides both a(x), b(x) can adapt Euclids Algorithm to find it: Euclid(a(x), b(x)) if (b(x)=0) then return else return Euclid(b(x), a(x)

a(x); mod b(x)); all foundation for polynomial fields as see next Modular Polynomial Arithmetic can compute in field GF(2n) polynomials with coefficients modulo 2 whose degree is less than n hence must reduce modulo an irreducible poly of degree n (for multiplication only) form a finite field

can always find an inverse can extend Euclids Inverse algorithm to find Example GF(23) Computational Considerations since coefficients are 0 or 1, can represent any such polynomial as a bit string addition becomes XOR of these bit strings multiplication is shift & XOR cf long-hand multiplication modulo reduction done by repeatedly

substituting highest power with remainder of irreducible poly (also shift & XOR) Computational Example in GF(23) have (x2+1) is 1012 & (x2+x+1) is 1112 so addition is (x2+1) + (x2+x+1) = x 101 XOR 111 = 0102 and multiplication is

(x+1).(x2+1) = x.(x2+1) + 1.(x2+1) = x3+x+x2+1 = x3+x2+x+1 011.101 = (101)<<1 XOR (101)<<0 = 1010 XOR 101 = 11112 Computational Example (con't) in GF(23) have (x2+1) is 1012 & (x2+x+1) is 1112 polynomial modulo reduction (get q(x) & r(x)) is (x3+x2+x+1 ) mod (x3+x+1) = 1.(x3+x+1) + (x2) = x2

1111 mod 1011 = 1111 XOR 1011 = 01002 Using a Generator equivalent definition of a finite field a generator g is an element whose powers generate all non-zero elements in F have 0, g0, g1, , gq-2 can create generator from root of the irreducible polynomial then implement multiplication by adding exponents of generator

Summary have considered: divisibility & GCD modular arithmetic with integers concept of groups, rings, fields Euclids algorithm for GCD & Inverse finite fields GF(p) polynomial arithmetic in general and in GF(2 n)

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