Wildlife Management & Vector Control

Wildlife Management & Vector Control

Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD Response in Domestic Livestock Overview Adapted from the FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD Response in Domestic Livestock (2014) This Presentation

Definitions of relevant terms APHIS Authorities Significance of wildlife in an FAD Roles and responsibilities Wildlife management methods and plans FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 2 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Definitions - OIE Wild animal: an animal that has a phenotype unaffected by human

selection and lives independent of direct human supervision or control Wildlife: all free-ranging animals, including native and exotic wildlife species, as well as feral domestic animals FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 3 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Definitions contd Feral: domestic animals not confined Wildlife reservoir: free-ranging

species as a potential source of infection/infestation Vector: any living organism that can carry disease agents Biological transmission: disease agent transfer from host to susceptible animal Mechanical transmission: disease agent transfer from host to susceptible animal via external body parts FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 4 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Definitions contd

FAD: animal disease or pest not known to exist in US or territories Emerging disease: change or mutation in pathogenicity, communicability or zoonotic potential to become a threat When livestock outbreak involves wildlife - USDA APHIS and authorities with jurisdiction over wildlife collaborate FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 5 USDA APHIS and CFSPH USDA APHIS Authorities

for Responding to an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock APHIS Authority Animal Health Protection Act (AHPA) Authorizes Secretary of Agriculture Prevent, detect, control, eradicate Title 9 of the CFR Regulations for disease control VS Memo 573.1 Animal Health Policy in Relation to Wildlife Requires collaborative relationships

between agencies of authority FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 7 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Relevance of Wildlife in an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock or Poultry Epidemiological Factors Interactions between host, agent, environment Agent: range, resistance,

affinity, dose, mode of transmission Host: species, age, immune/nutritional status Environment: housing, care, weather, vector presence FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 9 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Epidemiological Factors contd Immediately assess wildlife during an FAD

Detect cases Understand disease characteristics Identify disease risks Provide information for control Evaluate effectiveness of control and adjust Ecological factors FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 10 USDA APHIS and CFSPH International Trade Implications OIE distinguishes between

wildlife infection and domestic infection for some diseases wildlife role in transmission, maintenance of agent Not all countries will follow OIE guidelines for trade FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 11 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Roles and Responsibilities

ICS, NIMS, Unified Command Wildlife Cell, Vector Control Group Protect domestic animals and wildlife All personnel have proper training Wildlife Services coordinates with other agencies SERS, NWDP Livestock owners, producers FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 12 USDA APHIS and CFSPH

Wildlife Management Methods and Plans in an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock Steps of Wildlife Management FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 14 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Assessing Wildlife Population surveys Visual inspection

Ground surveys, aerial surveys Local reports Carcasses Live animal capture Sentinels FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 15

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Disease Surveillance Presence, spread, and/or prevalence Consider animal movement into and out of Control Area Diagnostic sampling may be necessary Live capture, observation, carcass collection Parameters should be outlined in surveillance plan FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview

16 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Contain and Control Wildlife Manipulate populations, habitat, or other factors Removal, relocation, dispersal, containment Buffer zones Monitor, surveillance for effectiveness Impacts evaluated FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 17

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Animal and Personnel Safety Safety is a priority Trained and experienced personnel Animal safety Minimize stress on animals Personnel safety Chain of command with assigned duties Determine all animal procedures, equipment, safety plans ahead of time FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview

18 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Demonstrating Disease Freedom Reestablishing international trade Wildlife-specific surveillance plan may need to be developed Not always feasible, practical for wildlife FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Tracing FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview

19 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Developing a Wildlife Management Plan Factors to Consider Epidemiology Study distribution of disease Data, observations of animals Ecology Location, habitat, seasonal social/feeding behavior

Resources Availability, personnel, equipment Socio-political Economy, law, regulation, public opinion, safety FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 21 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Personnel, Equipment, Reporting Personnel Understand biosecurity, safety protocols

Hazard exposure may include zoonosis PPE, vaccination Safety Officer safe work procedures Equipment, cleaning and disinfection Information collected, reported Manage, store, analyze, disseminate FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 22 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Vector Control in an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock

Vector-borne FADs Transmission of disease pathogen Mechanical Biological Methods of vector control Understand life cycle and relationship to host and pathogen Focus on habitat reduction, minimizing contact, chemical/biological control FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 24

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Methods of Vector Control Habitat reduction Change vector-required conditions Minimizing contact Limit exposure to habitat or during activity Chemical control Supplemental measure Apply to vector habitat, to animal, or feed as insect growth regulators Biological control Release agents or natural predators

FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 25 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Other Response Activities Response Activities Movement control Biosecurity Prevent spread of disease on personnel, vehicles, equipment, etc.

Adhere to Incident Command restrictions on movement and quarantine Communication C&D Euthanasia Must be treated humanely at all times Public Information

Officer will address public issues on outbreak FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview Follow disposal protocols 27 USDA APHIS and CFSPH For More Information FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD

Response in Domestic Livestock http://www.aphis.usda.gov/fadprep Wildlife Management and Vector Control web-based training module http://naherc.cfsph.iastate.edu/ FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 28 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidelines Content Authors (CFSPH)

Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH, DACVPM Nicole Seda, BS Meghan Blankenship, BS Heather Allen, PhD, MPA Contributor (USDA) Jonathan Zack, DVM FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 29 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidelines Content

Reviewers (USDA) Randall Levings, DVM, MS Randall Crom, DVM Michael Messenger, PhD Michael David MS, VMD, MPH Wildlife Disease Steering Committee Subject Matter Experts

Claudio L. Afonso Samantha Gibbs, DVM, PhD D. Scott McVey, DVM, PhD, DACVM David Suarez, DVM FAD-PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control Overview 30 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was by the Center for Food Security and

Public Health at Iowa State University through funding from the USDA APHIS Veterinary Services PPT Authors: Abbey Smith, Student Intern; Janice Mogan, DVM Reviewers: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Heather Allen, PhD, MPA

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