Why Evolution Is False L J Gibson www.grisda.org

Why Evolution Is False L J Gibson www.grisda.org

Why Evolution Is False L J Gibson Geoscience Research Institute www.grisda.org Summary Cambrian Explosion GRI Irreducible Complexity PublicDomain LadyOfHats

Evolution is the theory that all organisms have descended from a common ancestor by unguided (natural) processes. The Cambrian Explosion contradicts the pattern of common ancestry predicted by evolutionary theory. Irreducible complexity contradicts the claim that intelligent design is not necessary for biodiversity. Unique human attributes, including orphan genes contradict the claim of evolution theory that humans have evolved from ape-like ancestors. OUTLINE

Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry (pattern) Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection to drive evolution (process) Another view Conclusions What Is Evolution? Evolution is the theory that includes the following points: All organisms have descended from a single

common ancestor (PATTERN); Evolutionary change has occurred by strictly natural processes (there is no God who acts in nature) (PROCESS); Humans have evolved from ape-like ancestors, have no special status (PRODUCT). OUTLINE Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry (pattern)

Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection to drive evolution (process) Another view Conclusions The Predicted Pattern of Evolution All Species Belong to One Evolutionary Family Tree According to evolutionary theory, all life is connected by genealogy in a way that

can be represented by a tree-like diagram, starting from a common ancestor. Common Ancestor AnswersInGenesis modified The Tree of Evolution According to Many Types (High Disparity)

evolutionary theory, life started out as a single type/body plan, B2 then produced more A2 types gradually over long ages of time. Few Types Differences among animals (disparity) should increase

upward in the tree. A1 B1 Single Type The Cambrian Explosion Does Not Fit The Tree The Cambrian Explosion is a pattern in the fossil record in which the greatest differences among animal fossils are seen in the lowest

portion of the fossil record of animals. The Cambrian Explosion falsifies the prediction that biodiversity forms the pattern of an evolutionary tree. Evolution of the Evolutionary Tree Evolutionary Tree 1879 E Haeckel Evolutionary Bush

Reaction to Gould 1977 Evolution of the Evolutionary Tree Evolutionary Bush Evolutionary Tangle Carl e 1990 1990 Carl Woese 2016 L Hug et al

Systematic Gaps 12345 Missing links (gaps) are claimed to be due to the incompleteness of the fossil record. But the gaps are not random. The larger the difference between two species, the more intermediates there should be. In reality, there are no intermediates between species at the highest degree of difference. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . . . 98 99 - 100

Similar Species Often Form a Clustered Pattern Similar species should have so few intermediates that it is improbable that any would be found if the fossil record is highly incomplete. But intermediates (similar varieties) are often found for species that are similar. Horses are an example, with many similar

species. Angelfire.com The Larger the Differences, the Larger the Gaps This display shows four clusters of Cambrian/ Ordovician fossils, all separated from each other by large gaps. Gaps Are Real - Not Due To

Lack of Fossils The fossil record shows a non-random, systematic pattern of gaps. Preservation of soft-bodied faunas indicates that most species can be preserved as fossils. Abundance of individual fossils and ability to correlate fossil layers indicates the fossil record is complete enough to show real patterns. The Pattern of Biodiversity

The predicted pattern Charles Darwin. Public Domain The observed pattern GRI Summary The Pattern of Evolution Evolutionary theory predicts a tree-like pattern of evolutionary relationships.

Organisms are not easily arranged into a treelike pattern. The best pattern is a forest of trees, as in creationist theory. Outline Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry Inadequacy of mutation and selection No adequate source of variation

Natural selection is limited Another view Conclusions The Predicted Process of Evolution First Variation, then Selection Evolutionary theory assumes an unguided mechanism to produce diversification. The evolutionary process consists of two stages: variation, and selection. Selection is regarded as a cumulative,

stepwise process in which new structures are built gradually. Variation by Mutation The Theory Mutation is the proposed mechanism for producing variation.

According to the theory, random, unguided, mutations produce variation. Most mutations are harmful; beneficial mutations are very rare. Thus evolutionary processes must be very slow and gradual. Evolutionary Questions About the Source of Variation Are Mutations Helpful? Three slightly harmful fruit fly mutations.

These flies may survive, but are not improved. Image: tes.com Random mutations are highly unlikely to produce improvements in organisms. The probabilities of a specific sequence of five or more helpful mutations occurring is too low to be considered scientifically plausible. Evolutionary Questions About

Mutation Swampthingsscience.com How Can Genetic Meltdown be Avoided? Any helpful mutation will be linked to several harmful mutations; thus harmful mutations will accumulate faster than helpful ones. If this continues, the genetic system will collapse from an excess of harmful mutations. Evolutionary Questions On the

Source of Variation Do Epigenetic Changes Accumulate? Genes may be switched on and off by attachment or release of a methyl group/ molecule. Such epigenetic changes are rapid and reversible, but not cumulative. This explains why changes in a species typically fluctuate around an average, and tend to revert to the original wild type. Such changes do not accumulate to produce new organs or new types of organisms.

Evolutionary Questions About Natural Selection Can Selection Produce Irreducibly Complex Systems? An irreducibly complex system is one that does not function when one of its parts is not present. Natural selection cannot produce a system one step at a time unless there is some useful function at each step. Thus, natural selection cannot produce an irreducibly complex system.

A Cell Has Irreducible Complexity Membrane, metabolism and replication are complex, interdependent systems http:// training.seer.cancer.g ov/module_anatomy/

A cell consists of several complex, interdependent systems, each of which includes irreducibly complex components. Cells require at least 250 different genes. Evolutionary Questions About Natural Selection Can Selection Produce New Types of Organisms? Artificial selection

produces variation, but no new organs or body plans. A sampling of pigeon breeds. Incubator.Rockefeller.edu Summary: Mutation and Natural Selection Do Not Explain What We See Natural selection can only remove inferior individuals, it cannot create new organs. Improvements, or new features, can only be

produced by mutations that are beneficial. Most mutations are slightly harmful, but not harmful enough to be removed by selection. Slightly harmful mutations accumulate in the genome, causing degeneration. Outline Definition of Evolution http://www.rtgmin.org/ Failure of the predictions 2012/06/08/evolution-theory-ofevolution/ of common ancestry Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection

Another view Local adaptation Separate origins Conclusions Species Are Adapted to Their Local Environments Natural selection seems to explain the minor differences among similar species, such as

these honeyeater birds. Does Local Adaptation Involve Development of New Organs? Differences among species include color, body size, beak length and shape and other minor differences. Is Local Adaptation the Same As Evolution?

Can new organs be formed by natural selection? Would natural selection be able to convert one type of organism into another, given eons of time? Fruit flies laying eggs. USDA . PublicDomain. Typical bacterial cell. LadyOfHats. PublicDomain. Golden Retriever. AndreasDobler

CCbySA3.0 Can Evolutionary Theory Explain Orphan Genes? Do Orphan Genes Indicate Separate Ancestry? Many gene families are shared among most or all types of organisms. Every species group that has been studied has orphan genes, not related to any gene in other groups. This indicates a separate ancestry for different species groups.

How Many Orphan Genes Do Humans Have? Humans have at least 634 genes not found in chimpanzees. Chimps have 780 genes not found in humans. Neil Armstrong. Wikipedia

(PLoS 11(12):e1005721 doi:10.1371/ journal.pgen.1005721) Bonobo Chimp. Kabir Bakie CCbySA2 Are Humans Merely Hairless Apes? Humans have many unique attributes Humans have a complex language different from all other animals, including apes.

Humans have a moral nature, which no other animals have. Humans have unique features such as creativity, self-consciousness, appreciation of beauty, and self-sacrificing behavior not found in other animals. Left: One of many species of locally adapted species of Australian honeyeaters. Right: A member of a unique species humans.

Another View Summary Natural selection may explain local adaptation, but not creation of new organs or body plans. Humans have many unique characteristics that set them apart from apes and indicate separate ancestries for the two groups. Outline Definition of evolution Failure of the predictions of common

ancestry Inadequacy of natural selection to drive of evolution Another view Conclusions Conclusions Cambrian Explosion Irreducible Complexity

Evolution is the theory that all organisms have descended from a common ancestor by unguided (natural) processes. The Cambrian Explosion contradicts the pattern of common ancestry predicted by evolutionary theory. Irreducible complexity contradicts the claim that intelligent design was not involved in creation of biodiversity. Mutations

Conclusions Selection Evidence from artificial selection and genetics indicates that natural selection is not an adequate mechanism to produce the varied types of living organisms from a common ancestor. Unique human attributes, including orphan genes, contradict the evolutionary claim that humans share a common ancestry with apes.

Conclusion Evolution Is False For these reasons, the theory of universal common ancestry by purely natural processes, evolution, is false. THE END

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Compassion Fatigue - Food Bank of Central New York

    Compassion Fatigue - Food Bank of Central New York

    When helpers cannot see that they need help. When helpers don't or won't ask for help for themselves. The result> compassion fatigue. Compassion Fatigue. The cumulativetransformative effect on the helper of working with survivors of traumatic life events, ...
  • Modern Art How do you use the lessons

    Modern Art How do you use the lessons

    Modern Art How do you use the lessons of abstraction to make art for everyone? Composition No. 10 Blue and Green Music One: Number 31 Abstract Art Composition IV Voice of Fire Henri Matisse, The Dessert: Harmony in Red (The...
  • Silas Marner - Miss Thompson Media

    Silas Marner - Miss Thompson Media

    Discuss Eliot's use of Biblical allusions and their function in the novel. What sort of thematic unity do you find in the tale of Silas Marner? Discuss the various ways in which the author portrays or develops characters. Contrast the...
  • Classroom expectations presentation

    Classroom expectations presentation

    Causation Requires: Association. Sequence (causes preceded effects) Mechanism. Counter factual (no effect when causes are absent) To infer a causation we need three additional pieces of information. We need to know the sequence of the events. A cause must precede...
  • Type of report

    Type of report

    Securing OWA on public computers. Alex T. Vulnerability in Cutecast Forum v1.2. Zero-X www.lobnan.de Team. Yahoo Messenger: Invisible User Detect. Chris Caydes [SECURITY] [DSA 191-1] New squirrelmail packages fix cross site scripting bugs. Remote pine Denial of Service. Erik Parker...
  • Editorial Writing - Angiebarry's Weblog

    Editorial Writing - Angiebarry's Weblog

    Editorial Writing An Introduction Editorial Writing This module is also known as ENB5 It requires you to write in a particular mode and genre, using material from a range of sources You also need to consider audience and purpose The...
  • Network Security - Hofstra University

    Network Security - Hofstra University

    The correct value is d = 77, because 77 x 5 = 385 = 4 x 96 + 1 RSA Example RSA Strength Brute force attack: try all possible keys - the larger e and d the more secure The...
  • Unit 1 Organization and Classification of Life

    Unit 1 Organization and Classification of Life

    Members of the three domains get their food in different ways and are made up of different types of cells, the smallest unit of biological organization. The cells of animals, plants, fungi, and protists all contain a nucleus. While cells...