Why Evolution Is False L J Gibson Geoscience Research Institute www.grisda.org Summary Cambrian Explosion GRI Irreducible Complexity PublicDomain LadyOfHats
Evolution is the theory that all organisms have descended from a common ancestor by unguided (natural) processes. The Cambrian Explosion contradicts the pattern of common ancestry predicted by evolutionary theory. Irreducible complexity contradicts the claim that intelligent design is not necessary for biodiversity. Unique human attributes, including orphan genes contradict the claim of evolution theory that humans have evolved from ape-like ancestors. OUTLINE
Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry (pattern) Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection to drive evolution (process) Another view Conclusions What Is Evolution? Evolution is the theory that includes the following points: All organisms have descended from a single
common ancestor (PATTERN); Evolutionary change has occurred by strictly natural processes (there is no God who acts in nature) (PROCESS); Humans have evolved from ape-like ancestors, have no special status (PRODUCT). OUTLINE Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry (pattern)
Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection to drive evolution (process) Another view Conclusions The Predicted Pattern of Evolution All Species Belong to One Evolutionary Family Tree According to evolutionary theory, all life is connected by genealogy in a way that
can be represented by a tree-like diagram, starting from a common ancestor. Common Ancestor AnswersInGenesis modified The Tree of Evolution According to Many Types (High Disparity)
evolutionary theory, life started out as a single type/body plan, B2 then produced more A2 types gradually over long ages of time. Few Types Differences among animals (disparity) should increase
upward in the tree. A1 B1 Single Type The Cambrian Explosion Does Not Fit The Tree The Cambrian Explosion is a pattern in the fossil record in which the greatest differences among animal fossils are seen in the lowest
portion of the fossil record of animals. The Cambrian Explosion falsifies the prediction that biodiversity forms the pattern of an evolutionary tree. Evolution of the Evolutionary Tree Evolutionary Tree 1879 E Haeckel Evolutionary Bush
Reaction to Gould 1977 Evolution of the Evolutionary Tree Evolutionary Bush Evolutionary Tangle Carl e 1990 1990 Carl Woese 2016 L Hug et al
Systematic Gaps 12345 Missing links (gaps) are claimed to be due to the incompleteness of the fossil record. But the gaps are not random. The larger the difference between two species, the more intermediates there should be. In reality, there are no intermediates between species at the highest degree of difference. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . . . 98 99 - 100
Similar Species Often Form a Clustered Pattern Similar species should have so few intermediates that it is improbable that any would be found if the fossil record is highly incomplete. But intermediates (similar varieties) are often found for species that are similar. Horses are an example, with many similar
species. Angelfire.com The Larger the Differences, the Larger the Gaps This display shows four clusters of Cambrian/ Ordovician fossils, all separated from each other by large gaps. Gaps Are Real - Not Due To
Lack of Fossils The fossil record shows a non-random, systematic pattern of gaps. Preservation of soft-bodied faunas indicates that most species can be preserved as fossils. Abundance of individual fossils and ability to correlate fossil layers indicates the fossil record is complete enough to show real patterns. The Pattern of Biodiversity
The predicted pattern Charles Darwin. Public Domain The observed pattern GRI Summary The Pattern of Evolution Evolutionary theory predicts a tree-like pattern of evolutionary relationships.
Organisms are not easily arranged into a treelike pattern. The best pattern is a forest of trees, as in creationist theory. Outline Definition of Evolution Failure of the predictions of common ancestry Inadequacy of mutation and selection No adequate source of variation
Natural selection is limited Another view Conclusions The Predicted Process of Evolution First Variation, then Selection Evolutionary theory assumes an unguided mechanism to produce diversification. The evolutionary process consists of two stages: variation, and selection. Selection is regarded as a cumulative,
stepwise process in which new structures are built gradually. Variation by Mutation The Theory Mutation is the proposed mechanism for producing variation.
According to the theory, random, unguided, mutations produce variation. Most mutations are harmful; beneficial mutations are very rare. Thus evolutionary processes must be very slow and gradual. Evolutionary Questions About the Source of Variation Are Mutations Helpful? Three slightly harmful fruit fly mutations.
These flies may survive, but are not improved. Image: tes.com Random mutations are highly unlikely to produce improvements in organisms. The probabilities of a specific sequence of five or more helpful mutations occurring is too low to be considered scientifically plausible. Evolutionary Questions About
Mutation Swampthingsscience.com How Can Genetic Meltdown be Avoided? Any helpful mutation will be linked to several harmful mutations; thus harmful mutations will accumulate faster than helpful ones. If this continues, the genetic system will collapse from an excess of harmful mutations. Evolutionary Questions On the
Source of Variation Do Epigenetic Changes Accumulate? Genes may be switched on and off by attachment or release of a methyl group/ molecule. Such epigenetic changes are rapid and reversible, but not cumulative. This explains why changes in a species typically fluctuate around an average, and tend to revert to the original wild type. Such changes do not accumulate to produce new organs or new types of organisms.
Evolutionary Questions About Natural Selection Can Selection Produce Irreducibly Complex Systems? An irreducibly complex system is one that does not function when one of its parts is not present. Natural selection cannot produce a system one step at a time unless there is some useful function at each step. Thus, natural selection cannot produce an irreducibly complex system.
A Cell Has Irreducible Complexity Membrane, metabolism and replication are complex, interdependent systems http:// training.seer.cancer.g ov/module_anatomy/
A cell consists of several complex, interdependent systems, each of which includes irreducibly complex components. Cells require at least 250 different genes. Evolutionary Questions About Natural Selection Can Selection Produce New Types of Organisms? Artificial selection
produces variation, but no new organs or body plans. A sampling of pigeon breeds. Incubator.Rockefeller.edu Summary: Mutation and Natural Selection Do Not Explain What We See Natural selection can only remove inferior individuals, it cannot create new organs. Improvements, or new features, can only be
produced by mutations that are beneficial. Most mutations are slightly harmful, but not harmful enough to be removed by selection. Slightly harmful mutations accumulate in the genome, causing degeneration. Outline Definition of Evolution http://www.rtgmin.org/ Failure of the predictions 2012/06/08/evolution-theory-ofevolution/ of common ancestry Inadequacy of mutation and natural selection
Another view Local adaptation Separate origins Conclusions Species Are Adapted to Their Local Environments Natural selection seems to explain the minor differences among similar species, such as
these honeyeater birds. Does Local Adaptation Involve Development of New Organs? Differences among species include color, body size, beak length and shape and other minor differences. Is Local Adaptation the Same As Evolution?
Can new organs be formed by natural selection? Would natural selection be able to convert one type of organism into another, given eons of time? Fruit flies laying eggs. USDA . PublicDomain. Typical bacterial cell. LadyOfHats. PublicDomain. Golden Retriever. AndreasDobler
CCbySA3.0 Can Evolutionary Theory Explain Orphan Genes? Do Orphan Genes Indicate Separate Ancestry? Many gene families are shared among most or all types of organisms. Every species group that has been studied has orphan genes, not related to any gene in other groups. This indicates a separate ancestry for different species groups.
How Many Orphan Genes Do Humans Have? Humans have at least 634 genes not found in chimpanzees. Chimps have 780 genes not found in humans. Neil Armstrong. Wikipedia
(PLoS 11(12):e1005721 doi:10.1371/ journal.pgen.1005721) Bonobo Chimp. Kabir Bakie CCbySA2 Are Humans Merely Hairless Apes? Humans have many unique attributes Humans have a complex language different from all other animals, including apes.
Humans have a moral nature, which no other animals have. Humans have unique features such as creativity, self-consciousness, appreciation of beauty, and self-sacrificing behavior not found in other animals. Left: One of many species of locally adapted species of Australian honeyeaters. Right: A member of a unique species humans.
Another View Summary Natural selection may explain local adaptation, but not creation of new organs or body plans. Humans have many unique characteristics that set them apart from apes and indicate separate ancestries for the two groups. Outline Definition of evolution Failure of the predictions of common
ancestry Inadequacy of natural selection to drive of evolution Another view Conclusions Conclusions Cambrian Explosion Irreducible Complexity
Evolution is the theory that all organisms have descended from a common ancestor by unguided (natural) processes. The Cambrian Explosion contradicts the pattern of common ancestry predicted by evolutionary theory. Irreducible complexity contradicts the claim that intelligent design was not involved in creation of biodiversity. Mutations
Conclusions Selection Evidence from artificial selection and genetics indicates that natural selection is not an adequate mechanism to produce the varied types of living organisms from a common ancestor. Unique human attributes, including orphan genes, contradict the evolutionary claim that humans share a common ancestry with apes.
Conclusion Evolution Is False For these reasons, the theory of universal common ancestry by purely natural processes, evolution, is false. THE END
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