What is this thing called translation?

The straw that broke the camels back and The drop of water that caused the glass to overflow: How to survive as a translator in a technological age Presentation by Eduardo Berinstein at the 2016 NETA Annual Conference

In this new era of technical gadgets and artificial intelligence, where robots threaten to take away our jobs, what can humans still do better than machines, and how can translation theory come to our rescue?

Technology: good or bad? Translating since III B.C. Traduzco desde el ao III A.C. CAT (Computer-Assisted Translation) tools Translation memory

Terminology search (IntelliWebSearch) Terminology management Machine translation (rules-based and statistical) FAUT (Fully Automated Useful Translation) FAHQT (Fully Automated High Quality Translation) Voice to text for entering text Text-to-voice for listening to text (for proofreading)

Old metrics: Translator: 2000 words per day Proofreader: 6000 to 8000 words per day New metrics possible: Translator post MT editor: 4000-6000 words per day Proofreader: 6000 to 8000 words per day

Kurzweil prediction: 2029 year of singularity 2029: How old will you be? Is there hope? Should we all start looking for another job? Big question becomes:

What can humans still do better than machines? What is this thing called love? This funny thing called love? Just who can solve its mystery why should it make a fool of me? (Cole Porter)

What is this thing called translation? This funny thing called translation? Just who can solve its mystery why should it make a fool of me? For a quick answer, Daniel Gile says that Translation (with a capital T) is a professional activity or service, with a

communicative function, subject to professional norms and rules of communication, performed in different settings and constrained by the setting. Courtroom Immigration court Hospital, Community Health Center International Conference United Nations

Diplomatic Escort Community Service Agency Theater of War Refugee camp (http://aiic.net/page/3853) But Bellos says there is a better question: What is translation? What does translation do?

The straw that broke the camels back and The drop of water that caused the glass to overflow aka

La gota que colm el vaso. Sense = Form = Two different things! Work Hard. Breathe Easy.

Workplaces in Massachusetts have been smoke-free since 2004. Is yours? Protect your health and the health of

others. Make smoking history. Picture of man working in factory.

Call 978-6203121 (Spanish) Tagline: Make smoking history Erradiquemos el tabaquismo

Miranda rights: You have the right to remain silent. Wiretap But then, if a good translation is not always really a translation,

And if translating is not reproducing the form What then, is translation? Mariano Garcia Landa Wrote his thesis on DDL (Deliberate Deviations from Literality)

Mariano Garcia-Landa: Traducir es hablar para volver a decir lo que alguien dijo antes. Pero entonces, qu significa hablar?

So, how does language work? A look under the hood: (Steven Pinker talk) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-B_ONJIEcE Language: An exchange between sound and meaning.

Sergio Viaggio: Translation is really a subtask of interlingual mediation, in a social transaction, between flesh and bone people, always in a specific situation, at a specific point in time.

Viaggio: The Poles of Intentionality: 1. Why does a speaker talk? 2. Why does a listener pay attention? 3. Why does a client hire us? What does each party wants to achieve? Translators possible loyalties: Loyalty to the speaker/writer

Loyalty to the listener/reader Loyalty to the client Loyalty to his/her pocket But, loyalty to the profession (abiding by the Code of Ethics) constrains all of the above Hans Vermeer: Translator skopos

Anthony Pym: Understanding as an illusion Translators as illusionists Roman Jakobson 1896 1982, RussianAmerican linguist and literary theorist. Functions of language

Referential Expressive ("emotive" or "affective") Conative Phatic Poetic Metalingual ("metalinguistic" or "reflexive") http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakobson%27s_functions_of_language

Types of translation Documentary Instrumental Nord Ut interpres (literal) Ut orator (like a public Cicero

speaker) Foreignizing Domesticating Schleiermacher Formal Dynamic

Nida Semantic Communicative Newmark

Anti-illusory Illusory Lev Overt

Covert House Resistant Fluent

Venuti Danica Seleskovitch IN T ER

- Sense Language 1 -P RE

TI N G Language 2 Verbal phase

Incoming discourse Non-verbal phase Verbal input is transformed into ideas Verbal phase Re-production (different from reproduction) of the

ideas in the target language William Isham and Message Analysis: Words are just the tip of the iceberg. What lies beneath the surface? Message analysis (Isham) Message seen as a many sided crystal.

Key attributes of the message, necessary for uncovering the meaning.

Context Content (made up of propositions) Denotative meaning + Connotative meaning Function Register

Affect Contextual force (Relative impact) Metanotative qualities Useful for Critique Identifying difficulties

Prioritizing The End Fin Cst tout. Abbiamo finito. Gracias!

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