What is Science? - Central Dauphin School District
What is Science? Lesson 1, Marking Period 1 What is Science? The word "science" probably brings to mind many different pictures:
All of those images reflect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture because science has so many facets: What is Science? (cont.) Science is both a body of knowledge and a process. In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that's only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understandings of the natural world. Science is exciting. Science is a way of discovering what's in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past, and how they are likely to work in the future. Scientists are motivated by the thrill of seeing or figuring out something that no one has before. Science is useful. The knowledge generated by science is powerful and
reliable. It can be used to develop new technologies, treat diseases, and deal with many other sorts of problems. Science is ongoing. Science is continually refining and expanding our knowledge of the universe, and as it does, it leads to new questions for future investigation. Science will never be "finished." Science is a global human endeavor. People all over the world participate in the process of science. And you can too! Discovery: The Spark "Eureka!" or "aha!" moments may not happen frequently, but they are often experiences that drive science and scientists.
What causes gravity? How do tectonic plates move around on Earth's surface? How do our brains store memories? How do water molecules interact with each other? EVERYDAY SCIENCE QUESTIONS
Scientific questions can seem complex (e.g., what chemical reactions allow cells to break the bonds in sugar molecules), but they don't have to be. You've probably posed many perfectly valid scientific questions yourself: how can airplanes fly, why do cakes rise in the oven, why do apples turn brown once they're cut? You can discover the answers to many of these "everyday" science questions in your local library, but for others, science may not have the answers yet, and answering such questions can lead to astonishing new discoveries. For example, we still don't know much about how your brain remembers to buy milk at the grocery store. Just as we're motivated to answer questions about our everyday experiences, scientists confront such
questions at all scales, including questions about the very nature of the universe. So what is science? Science studies the natural world . This includes the components of the physical universe around us like atoms, plants, ecosystems, people, societies and galaxies, as well as the natural forces at work on those things. In contrast, science cannot study supernatural forces and explanations. For example, the idea that a supernatural afterlife exists is not a part of
science since this afterlife operates outside the rules that govern the natural world. Thinking Like a Scientist Scientists use skills such as: Observing Inferring Predicting
Classifying Making models to learn more about the world Observing Observing means using one or more of your senses to gather information. Your senses include:
Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell Quantitative v. Qualitative Observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative observations deal with a number, or amount.
Seeing that you have eight new e-mails in your inbox is a quantitative observation. Qualitative observations, on the other hand, deal with descriptions that cannot be expressed in numbers. Noticing that a bike is blue and that a grape tastes sour are qualitative observations. Inference v. Prediction When you explain or interpret the things you observe, you are inferring or making an inference.
Making an inference doesnt mean guessing wildly. Inferences are based on reasoning from what you already know. Predicting means making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence. While inferences are attempts to explain what is happening or has happened, predictions are forecasts or what will happen.
Classifying Classifying is the process of grouping together items that are alike in some way. You classify objects and information all the time. Classifying things helps you to stay organized so you can easily find and use them later. Making Models
Making models involves creating representations of complex objects or processes. help people study and understand things that are complex or that cant be observed directly. allows scientists to share information that would otherwise be difficult to explain. include diagrams and physical objects, such as globes and
movie sets. Some are computer-generated, like the ones architects use to design new buildings. are only representations of the real object or process. Therefore, some information may be missing from a model. What is Science? Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Science also includes all the knowledge gained from exploring the natural world. A Good Scientist Successful scientists possess certain
important attitudes, or habits: Curiosity eager to learn Honesty reports results truthfully Open-mindedness accepting of new ideas Skepticism an attitude of doubt Creativity inventive ways to solve problems Video Project Grab a book
Go to Table of Contents Preview the chapters Select a chapter you are interested in ON INDEX CARD: Write your name Chapter you have
selected Five things from that chapter that you could incorporate into your video Facts A statement of fact can be correct or incorrect. You can check it by doing research. Mercury is the planet Monkeys are
closest to the mammals. sun. Opinions A statement of opinion cannot be proved true or false. It is a belief or judgment. It often contains a word of judgment, such as best, should, or beautiful. It may begin Bananas are with the words In my or I
She isopinion the the best fruit believe. coolest girl in on a summer school! day. A photo essay like Adelinas Whales is the best genre for fourth graders to read. While
it can be proven Adelinas Is this statement a fact orthat an opinion? Whales is a photo essay, this statement contains an opinion. Notice best is a judgment word. Fact Opinion La Laguna is the most amazing place for Adelina to grow up. Is this statement
a facttrue or an opinion? It cannot be proven or false. It involves a belief or judgment, feelings. It might be a valid opinion, but it is not a fact. Fact Opinion Adelina has lived in La Laguna her whole life. this be statement a fact or
opinion? could This Iscan proven. Aanperson research this statement. Fact Opinion Mother whales are proud parents. They lift their babies up to show them off. Is this statement a fact or an opinion? It involves a belief or judgment. It cannot be proven whether whales are proud parents or not. Fact
Opinion Whales brains are as large as a cars engine. this be statement a fact or opinion? could This Iscan proven. Aanperson research this statement. Fact Opinion
Fact v. Opinion With your partner in your notebook, List two examples of facts. List two examples of opinions. BE PREPARED TO SHARE!!! Hypothesis, Theory & Law
MISCONCEPTION: If evidence supports a hypothesis, it is upgraded to a theory. If the theory then garners even more support, it may be upgraded to a law. In other words: Theories dont graduate into laws and laws dont get down graded into theories. Hypothesis A hypothesis is a reasonable guess based on what you know or observe, and hypotheses are proven and disproven all of the time.
Hypotheses play a strong role in the scientific method, the process that acts as the foundation of scientific exploration. After formulating a question, a scientist must create a hypothesis, a potential answer to the question. They then make a testable prediction, test, and analyze the data. Even then, a hypothesis needs to be tested and retested many times before it is generally accepted in the scientific community as being true. Example: You observe that, upon waking up each morning, your trashcan is overturned and trash is spread around the yard. You form a hypothesis that raccoons are responsible. Through testing, the results will either support or refute your hypothesis. Laws Laws Are statements of fact meant to explain, in concise terms, an action or set of actions.
Are generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Are similar to mathematical postulates. They dont really need any complex external proofs; they are accepted at face value based upon the fact that they have always been observed to be true. Laws Newtons Three Laws of Motion
The Laws of Thermodynamics Boyle's law of gases The law of conservation of mass and energy Hookes law of elasticity
Galileo's law of free fall Kepler's three laws of planetary motion Pick one and Write a brief Description, Find one not on the list and write a brief description.Newton's law of gravitation Theories This one is perhaps the most controversial of the terms weve
looked at so far. Why? Simply because people mistake a scientific theory for the every day use of the term opinion. Theories A "theory" is not an insult (as in the silly saying "it's just a theory"). A theory is simply the most elaborate form of consistent scientific knowledge not yet disproved by experiment. In
experimental sciences, a theory can never be "proved", it can only be "disproved" by experiment. This is precisely was makes a theory scientific. A statement that cannot be disproved by experiment may still be highly respectable but it's simply not part of any experimental science. Theories With your table partner, in your notebook
Describe Einsteins Theory of Relativity Research one other Theory and describe it. BE PREPARED TO SHARE!!! Laws v. Theories The difference between a law and a theory is that a theory is much more complex and dynamic. BIGGEST DIFFERENCE: A law governs
a single action, whereas a theory explains an entire group of related phenomena. A law gives the what happens A theory explains the why Analogy A scientific law is like a slingshot. A slingshot has but one moving part-the rubber band. If you put a rock in it and draw it back, the rock will fly out at a predictable speed, depending upon the distance the band is drawn back. An automobile has many moving parts, all working in unison to perform the chore of transporting someone from one point to
another point. An automobile is a complex piece of machinery. Sometimes, improvements are made to one or more component parts. A new set of spark plugs that are composed of a better alloy that can withstand heat better, for example, might replace the existing set. But the function of the automobile as a whole remains unchanged. A theory is like the automobile. Components of it can be changed or improved upon, without changing the overall truth of the theory as a whole. Facts, Opinions, Laws and Theories Facts 1.
Opinions 1. 2. 2. Laws 1. Newtons Laws state Theories 1. Theory of Relativity is 2. 2. Branches of Science
A branch of science is a specific area of study. Major branches: Physical, Life, Earth Branches of Science List 10 branches of science and what they study You may research on your phone or use the textbook p. 16 has 5 of them. Branches of Earth Science Complete the Branches of Earth Science
foldable. It will be graded! Five Sections are: Astronomy, Geology, Hydrology, Meteorology, and Environmental Science Front of flap should have the branch of science and three pictures related to that science. (must have color!) Under the flap include a short description
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