What is Psychology?

What is Psychology?

How does perception depend on sensory processing? Transduction of sensory information The visual system as the prototype Rods and cones and visual acuity The visual cycle Visual adaptation Introduction to colour vision Sense Stimul us Vision Light waves Auditio Sound waves n

Receptors Light-sensitive cells in retina Pressure-sensitive hair cells in cochlea of inner ear Touch Pressure on skin Sensitive ends of touch neurons in skin Pain Variety of potentially or actually harmful stimuli Molecules dissolved in fluid on tongue Molecules dissolved in fluid on mucous

membranes in Sensitive ends of pain neurons in skin and other tissue Tast e Smell Chemical-sensitive cells on tongue Sensitive ends of olfactory neurons in mucous membrane white light Pris m Gamma Rays

10-5 X-rays UltraViolet rays Infrared rays Radar Broadcast bands AC circuits 105 Wavelength in nanometers (billionths of a meter) 1017

Shorter wavelength (or higher frequency): Longer wavelength (or lower frequency): Greater amplitude (brighter colours): Smaller amplitude (duller colours): (See Gleitman p. 185) 40 30 20 10 fovea light 10

20 40 30 blind spot (See Gleitman, p. 185) Bipolar cell Ganglion cell Retina Photoreceptor layer Light entering Amacrine cell Horizontal

cell Rod Cone To brain via optic nerve Scotopic vision: rods 120,000,000 rods Photopic vision: cones 7,000,000 cones Purkinje shift Rhodopsin and 3 kinds of iodopsin Stabilized image Geographical Distribution of Retinal Cells Rods vs. Cones Number of cells / sq. mm. 180000

Rods 160000 Cones 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20

40 Distance from fovea (degrees) 60 Minimum log energy to generate a response Threshold to light at different wave lengths Cones 5. 0 4. 5 4. 0 3. 5 3. 0

Rods 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 1. 0 0. 5 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Wavelength in nanometers (Compare with Gleitman, p. 186, where the Y axis is measuring sensitivity rather than energy) Minimum detectable light intensity

(log units) Dark-adaptation curves Cone adaptation Rod adaptation 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15

20 25 Minutes in the dark 30 The nature of color vision: Gleitman pp. 192-196 Trichromatic Theory (at the level of the retina) Opponent-process Theory (further up the system) The Negative Afterimage Phenomenon (Opponent-process theory in action)

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