Wealth, Poverty and Welfare Objectives To know at least two areas of contemporary life where there are inequalities related to wealth. To be able to support these ideas with a range of evidence. Is poverty a new concept?
What does this historical image tell us about poverty? Poverty and the media Despite recent news coverage and campaigns against poverty like Make Poverty History, very little is actually done and groups who suffer from poverty are often underrepresented in the media and in government.
AO2 Therefore there is inequality within how the media treats the issue of poverty They are those with disabilities, women, older people and young people, people with caring responsibilities, gay and lesbian people and Black and minority ethnic people, including Travellers. One of the causes of poverty is therefore is discrimination; certain people are rejected
by society often for reasons beyond their control. Why do we need to make poverty history? http://www.makepovertyhistory.org/ Government Policies to tackle poverty
Tax credits are payments from the government. People who work, but earn low wages, may qualify for Working Tax Credit if they have children. AO2 It is an expensive policy. In the three years since it was introduced in 2003, something in the order of 65 billion was spent on tax credits by government. Even so, there is still a shortfall and poverty persists
Labour Government policy Increased benefits must be paid for by the taxpayer and this is unpopular, so some taxes for the rich have been cut. The incomes of the poorest 20% of households fell by 1.6% between 200506 and 2006-07 while those of the richest households rose by 0.8%. The New Right and Trickle down theory
Greed was seen as being a virtue in the 1990s when it was acceptable to be selfish and accumulate vast wealth through the new technological industries that were springing up. The New Right froze benefits and welfare spending in order to pay for tax cuts for the very wealthy. AO2 This didnt work ! An end to universal benefits
From the 1990s benefits have been targeted to certain groups. The system has been complicated and rigid AO2 People have complicated lives and can move between situations very quickly. Fernstein (2006) Some are ashamed to make claims Plenary
Answer questions 1-5 in booklets Discuss. Globalisation and poverty Large corporations employing cheap labour abroad to mass produce goods has had its effect on inequality in Britain.
The decline in manufacturing work in Britain has led to very few skilled labour jobs. This has led to deprivation and dissatisfaction with work See Marxism and alienation AO2 Meanwhile, poor workers in LED countries may be working long hours in terrible conditions to provide very cheap goods for people in the West.
The credit Crunch 2008-9 This has changed attitudes to inequalities in wealth in the UK The term Fat Cat is back and people are outraged by high wages and bankers bonuses. Jonathan Prynn, of the Evening Standard described how executive pay had risen by 30%, more than seven times the rate for
ordinary workers. Joseph Rowntree Foundation Social Evils Website respondents to their blogs felt that growing inequality in Britain is socially divisive and morally wrong, partly because income differences do not always reflect people's efforts.
Famous book Wilkinson and Pickett (2009) entitled The Spirit Level underlines the terrible impact of inequality on a society. Evaluation AO2 http://www.adamsmith.org/blog/jus tice-and-civil-liberties/the-spirit-lev el-delusion/
Plenary Answer questions 6-10 in booklets http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/2009-1 0/sociology/a2-cynnal/# Starter
Why do rich people stay rich? Discuss 5 Minutes Write down your thoughts. Elite Self-recruitment Goldthorpe (1980) and Glass (1954) both found evidence of what they described as 'elite self-recruitment'
whereby privileged and powerful positions go to children of wealthy and powerful people. Nick Clegg recently commented on inequality in internships ! How the rich stay wealthy
Investment in land or art Tax loopholes Overseas investment Exclusive education for their children Feathering each others nests Employing legal services to ensure
protection of property and wealth Plenary Answer questions 11-16 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfWn umM0He4 Explanations of poverty Cultural poverty Mostly New Right
Structural poverty Mostly Weberian and Marxists. What are the reasons for poverty?
It is the fault of individuals because they have a different set of cultural values. Poor people are the victims of the
unequal distribution of wealth. The poor do not have enough education to deal with money problems.
Some people who live in poverty come from harsh backgrounds (domestic violence). Many people do not possess the skills to get out of poverty. Immediate Gratification, when
people want pleasures now and do not work for the future Fatalism, when people think, what will be and assume they cannot escape from a bad situation Poor people do not have a good work ethic and expect bad jobs Teenage girls get pregnant for houses
and benefit The underclass is the group at the bottom of society Benefits encourage people to depend on the state rather than get jobs because it is easier for them
Charles Murray says poor people form an underclass and are a threat to society. What do you think? The norms and values of the underclass are a disease that threaten society Young men are involved in crime and do not work for their
families. Lone mothers are bad parents and allow boys to be criminal. They are bad role models They do not earn as much as men. They do not have pensions
Women do not have access to the money in the home. When relationships break up, they lose out Women and Poverty The Feminisation of Poverty.
They are more likely to be lone mothers and therefore poor. It is difficult to get jobs when you provide care for children and relatives What do you think about these ideas? What evidence is there to support them?
Critically assess cultural explanations of poverty (30) For this essay you should assess the usefulness of cultural explanations by offering strengths and weaknesses and by comparing them to structural explanations. Use PEEA ! Blue, green and red. Introduction = define cultural and structural explanations. P = Cultural explanation 1+ EEA P = Structural explanation 1+ EEA
P = Cultural explanation 2 + EEA P = Structural explanation 2 and 3 + EEA Conclusion about which is more convincing. Swap Mindmaps with another person. Is the other persons mindmap good enough for you to answer these questions, Work in Pairs: Name one researcher who supports a cultural explanation of poverty. What research can be used to criticise one cultural
explanation of poverty? What do cultural explanations imply or suggest about the underlying cause of poverty? How can one structural explanation of poverty be criticised? Starter http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/2009-1 0/sociology/a2-cynnal/#
Operationalisation Starter Quantitative research involves turning a concept into numbers, how will you do this for : Social Class Health Problems Attitudes towards the poor Impact of students loans on graduates Operationalisation starter Qualitative research does not require
such precise operationalisation but you still need to be clear about what you are going to find out, what would you look for when researching the following: Experiences of ethnic minority jobseekers Experience of women returning to work after maternity leave. Research Design AHO SMP AE 5 10 15
As an A level Sociologist, you have been asked to use qualitative methods to research how wealthy people are able to maintain their position in British society. Suggest a simple research design and justify your choices. Explain the difficulties that you might experience in carrying out your design and suggest how you would avoid them. Remember GROVER and the practical issues of carrying out your design. Critically assess the usefulness
of Feminist explanations of Gender inequality (30) You should include Radical, Marxist, Black and Liberal Feminism, Examples of inequalities Key writers Evaluations of the explanations Research Design
As an A level Sociologist, you have been asked to discover whether there is gender inequality in the behaviour and actions of the police in your area using quantitative methods Suggest a simple research design and justify your choices. Explain the difficulties that you might experience in carrying out your design and suggest how you would avoid them
Compare and contrast Marxist and Weberian views on class inequalities. (30) In pairs use your handout to create an essay plan which compares these two approaches to inequalities. Structure Introduction Marxist 1 then Weber 1 Marxist 2 then Weber 2
Marxist 3 then Weber 3 Conclusion Critically assess sociological explanations of ethnic inequalities.
Marxist explanations Divided working class - Miles Reserve army of labour Castles and Kosack(and scapegoating) Evaluations of Marxist explanations
Weberian explanations Dual labour market Barron and Norris Black Underclass Rex and Tomlinson/Giddens Evaluation of Weberian explanations Extra ! Functionalism (AO2 they wouldnt say much about it other than New Right David Saunders talks about minorities more likely to be welfare dependent. Evaluate the view that inequality is both inevitable
and functional (30) Outline Functionalist views Compare to another perspective e.g Marxist Strengths of view and evidence which supports. Weaknesses of view and evidence which supports. Conclusion Evaluate the Marxist view that
inequality is based on social class (30) Suggest a structure for this essay!
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