1 OBE Lectures Series-5 Assessing the Psychomotor and Affective Domains Learning Domains Coverage BE CIVIL ENGG CURRICULUM Creating Origination Evaluating Analyzing Applying Adapt Mechanism Response Setting Remembering
Characterization Understanding Organization Valuing Responding Receiving Affective Domain (10%) Perceiving Rubrics 3 Some Examples of Cognitive Levels SAMPLE QUES (COGNITIVE DOMAIN) IN CE 444- TRAFFIC ENGG Learning Level 1 LL 1 - Remembering Recalling information, recognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding (FACTUAL OR WHAT KNOWLEDGE) Define (LL 1) acceleration rate using speed-distance relationship diagram?
Define (LL 1) detector occupancy? Describe (LL 1) Shockwave in Traffic Engineering? Enlist (LL 1) the Microscopic and Macroscopic traffic stream parameters in Shockwave theory Some Examples of Cognitive Levels SAMPLE QUES (COGNITIVE DOMAIN) IN CE 444- TRAFFIC ENGG LL 2 - Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts, Interpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying (CONCEPTUAL OR WHY KNOWLEDGE) Explain (LL2) the Gap-out and Max-out Timings in the generalized (LL2) context of Signalized Intersections? Express (LL 2) the concept of Green shield Model/ equations with
examples and schematics for various traffic stream parameters LL 3 - Applying Using information in in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, executing (PROCEDURAL OR HOW KNOWLEDGE) How (LL3) can we compute braking distance using that relationship? How (LL3) can we calculate the macroscopic measurements using loop detectors? Some Examples of Cognitive Levels SAMPLE QUES (COGNITIVE DOMAIN) IN CE 444- TRAFFIC ENGG LL 4 - Analyzing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships, comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding (ANALYZING) Two drivers each have a reaction time of 2.5 seconds. One is obeying a 55-mi/h (88.5-km/h) speed limit, and the other is traveling illegally at 70 mi/h (112.6 km/h). Compute (LL 3) distance each of the drivers will cover while perceiving / reacting to the need to stop, and what will the total stopping distance be for each driver. Analyze (LL 4) the vehicle trajectories using relationships between position and velocity. What do you infer (LL 4) from that plot?
LL 5 - Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action, checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging (JUDGING AND ASSESSING) 6-lane urban freeway (3-lanes each direction) is on rolling terrain with 11 ft lanes, obstruction of 2 ft from right edge of the travelled pavement and 1.5 interchanges per mile. The traffic consists of primarily the commuters. The directional weekday peak-hour volume of 2200 vehicles is observed, with 700 vehicles arriving in the most congested 15-min period. If the traffic stream has 15% large trucks/ buses and no recreational vehicles, Evaluate (LL 5) the LOS? At some point further along the roadway, there is 6% upgrade that is 1.5 miles long; Do you appraise (LL 5) a change in the determined LOS? Show calculations? LL 6 -Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing (CREATION) o Individual Term Project: Using the given data (volumes, and saturation flows), and phasing diagram, Evaluate (LL 5) the Volume ratio for each movement, Average cycle length and average effective green signals and illustrate it figuratively on
signal cycle diagram. Also, Assess (LL 5) Traffic Signals Phasing and Capacity of Signal Timing using Synchro Software. Using the learned concepts of Actuated Signal Controllers (semi and/ or fully actuated controllers), Develop/ design (LL 6) a solution for given traffic conditions of a busy signalized intersection of an urban arterial by means of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Laboratory Conduct Stages Planning Lab Commitment Chart Lab Conduct Plan Groups (4-5 students) Conduct
Theory in Class Video in class Demonstration in Lab Conduct by Students Assessment Regular Assessment (Report/Quiz/viva/Attendance)-75% Rubrics for Skills (15%) and Attitude Assessment (10%) 108 Psychomotor Domain (Skills) Unacceptable Just acceptable 0 1 Procedural Skills Equipment care & Maintenance Excellent 2
3 4 Casual in following Follows adequate safety procedures safety procedures Learns desired skills Masters and applies and applies with desired skills with confidence ease and confidence Follows desired safety procedures Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with minimal level with adequate skills skillfully and of skills and and accuracy accurately accuracy
Completely adheres to safety procedures Masters use of equipment proficiently with precision Poor management Manages work area Manages work area Manages work area Manages work area of work area to some extent adequately effectively proficiently Equipment is Equipment is extremely well maintained to a highly desired level maintained with care Poor care &
maintenance of equipment Minimal care & maintenance of equipment Adequate care & maintenance of equipment Shows no commitment Shows some commitment but fails to perform assigned roles Demonstrates Demonstrates commitment , but commitment and has difficulty
carries out performing assigned also assigned roles roles VI. Participation & Contribution towards Group Goals Good Fails to learn and Learns skills and Learns adequate apply appropriate applies under skills and applies skills repeated guidance under guidance II. Totally ignores Adherence to Safety safety procedures
Procedures III. Unable to use the Proficiency in Use of equipment Equipment IV. Management of Work Area V. 1 Basic Active participation and effective contribution Rubric Form for Assessment of Psychomotor Domain (Skills) Regn S No. & No. Name
0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I II III IV V
VI Procedure Safety Equipment Management Care Group 1 2 3 4 0
1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1
2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3
Tot al Mar 4 ks Affective Domain (Attitude) Unacceptable (0) Levels of Achievement Just acceptable Basic (1) (2) Good (3) Excellent (4) I-Attitude
Shows that they take Shows that they Head held high. belief in Shows that they have Shows that they have care of themselves and takecare of themselves and others. no respect for little respect for believe in what they are themselves and strong and positive themselves or others. themselves & others. doing. others around them language.
II-Cooperation some interest in Participate good and Shows high involvement does not want to work Shows some interest in Shows listening and talking to help others using his and contributing to with others. Not listening to others others related to conversations and helpful. skills and knowledge shows problem solving high interest. III- Confidence does not believe in Shows less negative
Acceptable body body language. ones self. negative language body language and most Positive approach in positive with no skills believes strongly in self body language. of the time doesn't believing in others as and ability of presenting himself to handle all negative language attach what happen to well as in himself to others circumstances.
toward self or others. what they are feeling. IV-Goal Setting No goals. does not care about improvement and puts to work into trying to improve. Does not put in the work. V-Engagement moderate stays active and involvement. engaged in the Is a member of a quality pays no attention to sometimes engaged Pay attention towards activity. Try's to get
improvement in himself the activity. Not active and active in the his basic goal and eager others involved. and always volunteer to in the lesson. lesson. other times to get it works hard to do hard work fades to the back and improve. is uninvolved. Have goals but are blurr in his mind Has Clearly set goals.
works hard to He knows why he has He Knows what he wants improve. puts in the set goals, whats his but dont know how to time and energy to vision, how can he get it get it improve toward and when he will get it goals. Rubric Form for Assessment Affective Domain (Attitude) Course: Department: Task: Viva/Term Proj Section: Sr No S No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Regn Number /Name I II III IV
V Total Attitude Cooperation Confidence Goal Setting Engagement Mark s 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 34 Problem-solving vs. problem-based learning - different but inter-related Problem-solving: arriving at decisions based on prior knowledge and reasoning Problem-based learning: the process of acquiring new knowledge based on recognition of a need to learn PROBLEM SOLVING PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
Educational strategy Traditional discipline-based Integrated systems-based Main characteristics - The focus is on - The problem comes first preparatory learning without advance readings, prior to exposure to the lectures, or preparation. problem. - The problem serves as a - The staff set the stimulus for the need to know. problems (case history problems in a primarily - Based on their own prior lecture- based format), and knowledge and the students attempt to identified gaps in that
resolve them using knowledge, students previously taught determine the learning curricular content. issues within their own group. They then identify and use a variety of learning resources to study these issues and return to the group to discuss and share what they have learned. Setting the context for the case studies The transportation courses in third and fourth year 3rd Year Case: Transport policy is quite abstract and it is difficult for students to engage with this topic.
In lectures, students were introduced to different transport policies and given examples of how these policies were put in place Therefore, it was felt that using PBL to examine transport policy was an ideal solution Groups of five students were used as it was felt that this is a group number that is easy to manage and allows all members to have some chance to speak. The objectives of the PBL exercise were that they would: 1. Explore in more detail the theoretical background to the policies of deregulation and privatization. 2. Examine why certain advantages and disadvantages exist. 3. Explore case studies to examine whether these advantages and disadvantages were encountered. Having defined their problems, groups were then required to prepare several pieces of work, which would be assessed: An oral presentation of 10 minutes, where they discussed the outline of their problem and how they had defined it and where they answered the questions they had set for themselves; A more substantial written report; a poster that outlined the most pertinent parts of their presentations Fourth year case study
Two problems: In the first problem, students were presented with a statement about the relative merits of different approaches to transport modeling, using terms and referring to theories not yet encountered by the students. In the second problem faced by the fourth years, the focus was on the traffic engineering section of the course. In this part of the course, students had been introduced to road safety engineering and to information about how civil engineers play a role in introducing road safety Results and Discussions: In both classes, presented innovative and unusual approaches to the problems that they were given. The third year class were looking at issues relating to transport policy. Students were very mature in their approach to these problems and there was significant evidence of students carrying out independent research and reading outside of the lecture course and reading materials for the course. Several groups made real efforts to look at more unusual examples where privatization and/or deregulation of public transport had taken place. A case study: Problem-based learning for civil engineering students in transportation courses A. A. Ahern European Journal of Engineering Education PBL IN THE CIVIL ENGINEERING
CURRICULUM AT NTNU AT TRONDHEIM Each class with around 100 150 students will be working in groups of 4 5 students, to which professional and technical input is given by various means (lectures, exercises, reference literature, internet, etc.). During the starting phases of each PBL activity inputs from the teaching staff are considerable. Each PBL activity has a responsible professor and all PBL activities have a PBL coordinator. Normally several teachers will be involved in each PBL unit The first five PBL activities are organized on a project progress process, from the planning phases, through the building phases, to the organizational phase: Physical Planning and the Environment. Insight into physical planning in an environmental and sustainable development perspective. Including: planning, assessments and comparison methods, planning system and law, environmental issues related to the built environment and traffic, water supply and discharge systems. Environmental and resource engineering. Understanding and practical insight into major civil engineering challenges related to the environment and the use of resources. Including: global environmental issues, environment and use of resources in buildings, water resources, use, pollution and discharge, and waste sector and waste re-use. Building Materials. Improve foundation for choice of materials and constructive solutions related to new buildings, maintenance and rehabilitation. Including: understanding of production, composition, structure and use of building materials, use for specific functions and joint action between different materials. Design of Buildings and Infrastructure. Practical training in design of various types of buildings and facilities. Including: buildings, structures, roads and water/discharge facilities, sub-processes related to design and individual and societal considerations. Organization and Economy in Building and Construction Projects. Understanding of subjects related to economy and management in building processes. Including: assessment of
budgets, profitability analysis, bid calculations, contract processes and building process organization. Areas of PBL Physical Planning and the Environment. Insight into physical planning in an environmental and sustainable development perspective. Including: planning, assessments and comparison methods, planning system and law, environmental issues related to the built environment and traffic, water supply and discharge systems. Environmental and resource engineering. Understanding and practical insight into major civil engineering challenges related to the environment and the use of resources. Including: global environmental issues, environment and use of resources in buildings, water resources, use, pollution and discharge, and waste sector and waste
re-use. Building Materials. Improve foundation for choice of materials and constructive solutions related to new buildings, maintenance and rehabilitation. Including: understanding of production, composition, structure and use of building materials, use for specific functions and joint action between different materials. Design of Buildings and Infrastructure. Practical training in design of various types of buildings and facilities. Including: buildings, structures, roads and water/discharge facilities, sub-processes related to design and individual and societal considerations. Organization and Economy in Building and Construction Projects. Understanding of subjects related to economy and management in building processes. PBL IN THE CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM AT AALBORG UNIVERSITY
5 Tear Long Program First Year common to all Engineering Next 3 semesters Civil Engineering subjects-Focus on Problem Solving Next 5 semesters are different for each specialization (construction, planning, energy, etc.) and PBL work is mainly Problem-oriented, where students deal with unsolved problems within science and profession Fifty per cent of the curriculum is PBL, the other 50 % is divided equally between courses related to the project and to the curriculum In the beginning, lectures take more time than project work, and towards the end, the opposite happens. During the first weeks of each semester students get some of the information they need for the project, and at the end, they concentrate in developing the project, writing the report and preparing for the evaluation Audited by the Danish State Parliament, Aalborg University appears to have the most effective educational system of all Danish engineering educational institutions (about 80 % of the students pass their examination in the prescribed time) Ref: Project/Problem Based Learning in Civil Engineering: the Ciudad Real (Spain) /http://www.ineer.org/Events/ICEE2003/Proceedings/pdf/5641.pdf Final Year Projects-Process Assessment of the final year project takes place in two distinct phases i.e. in
the 7th and 8th semester:- a. Grading for 7th Semester (3 CR) 30% (1) Synopsis Approval - 5%. It shall be conducted at the start of 7th semester, preferably on FYP day of 5th week. Student will make a presentation and submit hard copy of report indicating deliverables according to timeline. Form UGP-OBE-2 and Rubric UGP-OBE-2A are used for reporting of grades by panel. (2) Mid Defense/Oral Project Presentation - 15%. Each Group is required to present their project proposal to the panel. This will take place on the last Project day of 7th semester (9 am to 5 pm). A 30 minutes time slot will be given for the presentation to each group. In addition 15 minutes are also kept for Question/Answers session. Form UGP-OBE-3 and Rubric UGP-OBE-3A are used for reporting of grades by panel. (3) Semester Progress 10 %. Students will receive ongoing feedback from their advisor during the whole semester as to their success or otherwise. Form UGP-OBE-4 and Rubric UGP-OBE-4A are used for reporting of semester progress by the project adviser. What is Problem-Based Learning? Challenges students to learn through engagement in a real problem. Simultaneously develops Problem solving
strategies Disciplinary knowledge bases and skills Places students in the active role of problemsolvers Confronted with typical and problem clinical cases that they are likely to face as future Engineers Problem-based learning is studentcentered. Fundamental shift: Focus on teaching to a focus on learning. Process aimed at using the power of authentic problem solving to Engage students Enhance their learning and motivation. Unique aspects of PBL Learning occurs in the
contexts of authentic tasks, issues, and problems Aligned with real-world concerns Stimulates students to take responsibility for their own learning Very few lectures No structured sequence of assigned readings, etc. Fosters collaboration among students Stresses the development of problem solving skills within the context of professional practice Promotes effective reasoning and selfdirected learning Aimed at increasing motivation for life-long
learning. Role of the Instructor Instructors role Changes from "sage on the stage" "guide by the side." Instructor becomes facilitator and coach of student learning Acts at times as a resource person, rather than as knowledgeholder and disseminator. Role of the Student More active, Engaged as a problem-solver Decision-maker Meaning-maker
Not a passive listener and notetaker Where did it come from & who is using it? PBL originated from a curriculum reform by medical faculty at Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, OH) in the late 1950s. McMaster University in Canada further evolved the practice of PBL in their medical school program. Both institutions considered Intensive pattern of basic science lectures Followed by an equally exhausting clinical teaching program Ineffective Dehumanizing way to prepare future physicians. PBL has spread to over 50 medical schools Diffused into many other professional fields including
Law Economics Architecture Mechanical and civil engineering Speech-Language Pathology K-12 curricula The entire MBA program at Ohio University has been designed as an integrated curriculum using the PBL approach. Traditional education Why PBL? Students disenchanted
Bored with their education. Faced with vast amounts of information to memorize Much seems irrelevant to the world as it exists outside of school. Students often forget much of what they learned That which they remember cannot often be applied to the problems and tasks they later face in the real world. Traditional classrooms do not prepare students to work with others in collaborative team situations. The result: Students tend to view education as a "rite of passage," A necessary "union card
An imposed set of hurdles with little relevance to the real world. Education reduced to acquiring a diploma (merely another commodity to be purchased in the marketplace) The final grade becomes the overriding concern (rather than learning). Research in educational psychology has found Traditional educational approaches (e.g., lectures) do not lead to a high rate of knowledge retention. Most material learned through lectures soon forgotten Natural problem solving abilities may actually be impaired.
Studies have shown that in 90 days students forget 90% of everything they have been told (Smilovitz, 1996). Motivation in traditional classroom environments is also usually low. Advantages of PBL Students enjoy the process of learning A challenging program Intriguing for students because They are motivated to learn by a need to understand and solve clinical problems. The relevance of information learned is readily apparent students become aware of a need for knowledge as they work to resolve the problems. The Syllabus
Group Meetings/Research Students are divided into small groups (usually 6 per group), Address problems related to course subject (e.g., adult neurogenic communication disorders). Groups are assigned at the beginning of the academic quarter A Facilitator is assigned to each group. Groups meet weekly, according to the class schedule. Students are expected to spend a significant amount of additional time each week researching learning issues.
Week One Analysis Phase Instructor presents a written description or shows a video of the problem (case). Using a Case Worksheet: (A)Plenary Group: Students work together to describe communication skills through observations; (B)Networking Group: Students work in small groups to list the knowledge or skills (learning issues) needed to address the problem and to make research assignments on particular learning issues. Prior to Week Two Research Phase Students conduct independent
research in preparation for the next weeks meeting. By the end of the quarter, students are expected to have covered all of the learning outcomes for the course. Students prepare a handout of their research, which is posted on Canvas in preparation for the next class. Week Two Synthesis and Evaluation Phase Students report their findings and discuss learning issues that were researched Networking Groups. Students work together to summarize what they learned and to list issues that still need to be addressed Networking
Groups. Independent Learning Activities (ILAs) In addition to the weekly group meetings, students are expected to pursue competency in specified related skills by completing independent learning activities (ILAs). Requirements for each ILA are explained in a separate handout. In general, one (1) ILA must be completed each week Because there are 7-8 ILAs in a quarter, there will be some weeks when an ILA is not due Students post their ILAs to CANVAS. Role of the Instructor The Instructor presents the
problem (case) and guides students through the observations. The Instructor also guides the Facilitators Makes resources available to students Evaluates students ILAs Handouts final exam Assigns final grade. Role of the Facilitator Fosters critical thinking Guides students in the direction they wish to pursue, as long as all
learner outcomes are addressed. Provides general assistance in locating resources and interpreting original works. Role of the Students Develop skill in observing and characterizing patterns of communication breakdown Work collaboratively to analyze cases and identify issues that need to be addressed Research the issues Engage in the process of discovery Lead and participate in small group discussions that arrive at integration and application of the knowledge to the client or patient population General Approaches to Implementing PBL
into the Curriculum 1. Completely integrated PBL curriculum 2. Transitional approach - basic/foundation courses are in lecture format; higher level courses use PBL 3. Single-course approach independently decided by course instructor The Vision 6/7 faculty are convinced of the benefits of learnercentered teaching & want to use it; the other one just doesnt know it yet. The Challenge Groups of 6 8 students work best 30 students too big for the old approach Limited faculty to facilitate more groups The Plan Stages 1. Invite recent graduates (because they would be more familiar with the format than untrained contract faculty) to be facilitators 2. Development and implement orientation and mentoring 3. Pay them
4. Ensure consistency across courses by developing and implementing a structured format 5. Assess the plan at mid-term and at end-of-quarter Consistency Across Courses (Structure & Process) Syllabus Explains the Process Two-week cycles Roles Groups Format Guides Assessment of Students Assessment of Students 1. Standard of Excellence-Group Discussion Participation Rubric 2. Standard of Excellence-Weekly Handouts Rubric 3. Independent Learning Activities (ILA) Rubric Specific to each ILA
4. Final Examination Participation in Group Discussion Group participation Fundamental to format and learning environment. Students expected to lead group in discussion of the issues. Standard of Excellence-Group Discussion Participation Rubric Used by facilitator to evaluate and assign participation grades for each student in the group. Handouts/Individual Contributions Students prepare a written summary of their learning issue (outline). A handout of essential information is Posted on CANVAS for the Instructor
Emailed or Dropboxed to the 6 members of their group one day prior to the next meeting date. Standard of Excellence-Weekly Handouts Rubric Used by the instructor to grade handouts Independent Learning Activities (ILAs) Each ILA has different requirements E.g., Administer a (given) test and interpret the results Instructor uses a rubric specific to that ILA to grade the students submission (uploaded to CANVAS) E.g., Analyze a language sample (using a specific method as learned independently) Instructor uses a specific rubric to grade this ILA
Final Examination (Options) CMSD 684 Sem: Adult Language Disorders The week before final exam week, a video is uploaded onto CANVAS for the students to view (as many times as they wish). Students required to answer (in writing) specific questions regarding Clinical observations and impressions Diagnosis hypothesis and rationale Choice of diagnostic tools and rationale for use Choice of treatment approaches and rationales Citations and references A letter grade is assigned based on
the criteria outlined in the CMSD 684 Examination Rubric Students have one week to complete the exam. Papers must be typed, double-spaced, and uploaded to CANVAS Or . . . CMSD 525 & 682 Final Examination - Oral Presentation/ In-service. Students are required to integrate information learned in two PBL courses offered during the same academic quarter Assigned to work in groups of three to develop one 20 minute presentation, designed to be an inservice for selected target audiences (e.g., Parents of children with TBI). Must integrate what they know about child language disorders and traumatic brain injury in order to
design the in-service Students are randomly assigned to topic and target audience. The in-services are presented on the day of the final examination In-services are required to include PowerPoint (PP) presentations Pamphlets Posters Activities for audience participation, etc. A transcript of the in-service (for the instructors)
A handout of the ppt presentation (for peers & instructors) References and citations A letter grade is assigned based on the criteria outline in the Standard of ExcellenceOral Presentation. Both instructors confer to assign a letter grade that will count for each class. Assessment of the Process Students Email survey/students (how is it going?) Recorder form more room Case Worksheet revised Facilitators Orientation Quarterly feedback sessions Email survey/students (how is it going?)
Feedback from Students & Alumni How is the PBL process going? Overall, the process is going well. I feel the structure is beneficial on many different levels. We are not only learning the content/material but also acquiring the skills of problem-solving, deep critical thinking and synthesizing. It is excellent training for post-graduate school and, while we still may be mapping out the territory and navigating somewhat blind, I'm happy to be learning this skill set now.