Western Civilization II Central Texas College Fort Knox, Kentucky Bruce A. McKain Chapter 17 - The Age of Enlightenment Period of the Philosophes Popularization of the Scientific Revolution Rejection of Christianity in marked secularization
Religion and Art became more religious in nature. Philosophes Usually upper class individuals who saw science as the savior of mankind. In Paris women were in the lead
Madame Marie-Therese Geoffrin Madame Geoffrins Salon Immanuel Kant Enlightenment : Man leaving his self-caused immaturity. Wanted to apply
Scientific Methods using reason to find laws that govern human society Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757) Plurality of Worlds Scientist of the 17 Century th
Kepler Galileo Newton Worked to exalt God through science. Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) Attacked superstition, religious intolerance,
dogmatism, and Louis XIV of Frances attempts to establish State Religion Historical and Critical Dictionary Bible of the 18th Century Travel
Discovery of Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia by Captain James Cook, and publication of Cooks Travels brings about Cultural Relativism New ideas/religions making Europeans question their own beliefs.
John Locke Concerning Human Understanding Believed people are molded by their environment. Isaac Newton Newtons Laws
Belief in a natural order. Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire Philosophic Letters Well known for criticism of traditional religion, supported religious toleration. Treatise on Toleration Forwarded the idea of
Deism suggesting existence of a mechanic (GOD) which created the universe. Denis Diderot (1713-84) Encyclopedia or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades.
Science of Man Natural Laws David Hume (1711-76) Treatise on Human Nature Observations and Reflection grounded in Systematized Common Sense made conceivable a Science
of Man Natural Economic Laws Francois Quesnay (16941774) forwarded the idea of Laissez Faire. 1st Law: Land is the only source of wealth. 2nd Law: The natural economic force of supply and demand individuals
should be free to pursue their economic selfinterest. Natural Economic Laws Adam Smith (17231790) Wealth of Nations Laid the foundation for 19th century Economic Liberalism.
Later Enlightenment Baron Pal d Holbach (1723-89) System of Nature Later Enlightenment Marie-Jean de Condorect (1743-1794) Progress of the Human Mind
Man has lived through 9 stages of history and has now entered the 10th stage Perfection. Government is an Evil, but a necessary one. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) Attacked the idea of private property.
Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind Women should learn obedience and the nurturing skills that would provide for loving care of husband and children Other Beliefs of the Period The base nature of
women make then inferior to men. Male domination of women is necessary There are natural biological differences between man and woman Women are by nature
intellectually inferior to men And the Ladies Said: Mary Astell (1666-1721) A Serious Proposal to the Ladies And the Ladies Said: Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-97) Founder of Modern Feminism Vindication of the Rights of Woman Innovations in Art, Music and Literature Baroque and Neoclassical styles continue into the 18th
century. Rococo began to affect the 18th century emphasizing grace and gentle action. Rococo re rejected the strict geometric patterns and was easily used in Baroque
architecture. Architecture Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753) Church of Vierzehnheiligen (14 Saints) Bishops Palace Residenz in
Schonborn Art- Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) Music - Bach Music - Mozart Development of the Novel Pamela or Virtue
Rewarded Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) Development of the Novel The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling Henry Fielding (170755) Development of the Novel
High Culture : Literary and Artistic world of the educated and ruling class. Greek and Latin Scientific and Religious Popular Culture: Written and unwritten lore of the masses.
Vernacular languages Catered to the lowest common denominator. Education By the 18th century: Privately endowed secondary schools Grammar and Public schools I England,
Gymnasiums in German lands, Colleges in France and Spain. Greek and Latin taught to access knowledge, with little attention to mathematics, science, and modern languages. 1747 Germany
established Realschule concentrating on modern languages, geography and bookkeeping. Crime and Punishment Through 17th century Judicial Torture: Racks, Thumbscrews, and Public Executions.
Cesare Beccaria (173894) On Crime and Punishment. Punishment should serve as a deterrent, not as an exercise in brutality. Medicine Physicians University trained, consulted with patients and charge
fees. Barber/Surgeons Apothecaries/ Pharmacists Midwives Faith Healers Carnival Period leading up to Lent 40 days period of
fasting and purification leading up to Easter. Known as Fasching in Germany Maudi Gras in New Orleans Literacy Literacy rates grow in the 17th to 18th century
form 29% to 47% for men and 14% to 27 % for women, in the upper classes. Rates for Artisans grew from 28% to 85% during the same period. Literacy was an issue for Protestant Reformers
because people needed to be able to read the Bible. Peasants stayed at nearly a 0% literacy rate. Religious Intolerance Catholic and Protestant Churches both
continued to be conservative institutions that upheld societys hierarchical structure. Jews were expelled from Spain in the 15th century. In later periods
Progroms massacres, looting of homes and businesses, and forced removals continued into the 20th century. Chapter 18 European States, International Wars, and Social Change Catherine the Great Catherine II of Russia
Ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796. Reformed Russian government, modernizing Russia along Western European lines. Standing Armies and Bureaucracy Prussian Kings Frederick
I and II, key in development of the backbone of Prussian government. Great Directory English Monarchy from 1715 Hanoverian Kings George I George II
English Monarchy from 1715 George III George IV English Monarchy from 1715 William IV Queen Victoria
English Monarchy from 1715 Edward VII George V English Monarchy from 1715 Edward VIII George VI
English Monarchy from 1715 Elizabeth II ? Charles III or William V ? King Williams War 1689-1697 French attack into New York from Canada,
Colonial response was to seize Port Royal Nova Scotia. Peace of Ryswick in 1697 restored all lost land holdings. Queen Annes War War of the Spanish Succession
1702-13 Deerfield Massacre Colonials burned St. Augustine Florida. Peace of Utrecht in 1713 ceded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay Region to England.
King Georges War War of Austrian Succession 1740-48 Colonials capture Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island. Treaty of Aix la Chapelle returned that town to the French.
Seven Year War French and Indian War 1756-1763 Colonial with some English assistance fought French and their Indian allies. Most of the war was fought in Europe.
Ended by Treaty of Paris 1763. American Revolution Excesses of British Crown after Seven Year War leads to revolt in the American colonies. War fought from 1775 to 1781
Independence for America lends itself to revolution in other nations. Chapter 19 -The French Revolution The French Revolution cont. France in 1770s was still like feudal societies
of Middle Ages. First Estate = Clergy 1% of population, 10% of land Second Estate = Nobles 5% of population, important jobs and wealth
The French Revolution cont. Third Estate = Common People 94% of population. Doctors, Lawyers, Teachers, Business People, and Bankers City Workers Farmers 80 % of the population
The French Revolution cont. Only Third Estate paid taxes on the money they made and their land. Farmers paid about half of what they made in taxes, and they had to work on government
projects once a year without pay. The French Revolution cont. 1 May 1789 Estates General meets for first time since 1614. Each Estate got one vote. Third Estate declares
themselves the National Assembly King locks them out of Estates General The French Revolution cont. The Third Estate meets at a indoor Tennis Court and takes an oath to stick together
Tennis Court Oath Under pressure Louis XVI ends Estate General and told Clergy and Nobles to join The National Assembly. The French Revolution cont. July 14, 1789 mob attack a prison called The
Bastille where political prisoners and gunpowder was stored. The Bastille fell when the soldier guarding it joined the mobs. Bastille Day is celebrated in France as the start of the French Revolution.
Revolutionary Reform and Terror October 1789 women riot over cost of bread march on Louis XVI palace at Versailles. Killed several guards and demanded Louis and his family mover to Paris Louis XVI agrees to do so but attempts to flee
France in June 1790. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. King and family forced to return to Paris in 1791. National Assembly vest power of lawmaking into a Legislative Assembly. King enforced laws, all men were equal, only property owners could be
elected to government. Republic of France formed 11 months later, King removed from power, all men could vote and hold office. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. French migrs ask Leopold II of Austria to overthrow new French
government. All kings have a duty to restore order to France Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Spain try to end the French Revolution. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. Louis XVI wrote letters
condemning the French Revolution. He was tried for treason. He was executed on January 21, 1793. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. Jacobins radicals seized power of Constitutional
Convention and Maximilien Robespierre led the revolution. Believed anyone opposed to the revolution should be killed Thus starting the Reign of Terror. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont.
July 1793-July 1794 thousands were executed. Most common form of execution was the Guillotine. It was viewed to be a humane death Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont.
Marie Antoinette was among the first to be killed. Many Nobles were executed. Mostly common people were killed. Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. Reign of Terror ends
after one year of Robespierre as Dictator when he was executed on July 28, 1794 Revolutionary Reform and Terror cont. 1794-1799 France is under control of the 5 person Directory. In 1799 the Directory
falls and France falls under the control of three men one of whom is an army officer named Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon and the French Empire General at age 24. 1st Consul of France in 1800,
elected for life in 1802. Becomes Emperor of France in 1804. I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with a sword. Placed crown of France on his own head. Napoleon and the French Empire cont.
1805 Britain, -Austria and Russia form military alliance against France. 1806-1812 defeats Austria, Russia, Italy ended Holy Roman Empire 1806 Napoleon orders Europe to end trade with England The Continental System.
Napoleon and the French Empire cont. 1812 Napoleon invades Russia in retaliation for Czar Alexander I failure to support the Continental System as agreed to in 1807. Napoleons Army could not deal with the distances and logistical problems of
invading Russia. Scorched Earth Policy defeats Napoleon March from Moscow begins October 1812. Napoleon and the French Empire cont. Russian Campaign took Napoleons army from 500,000 to less than 40,000 after the March
from Moscow, with only 10,000 being able to continue to fight. March 1814 British, Russian, Prussian, ad Austrians capture Paris. Napoleon and the French Empire cont. Napoleon exiled him to the island of Elba, off
the coast of Italy. Monarchy restored in France. February 1815 Napoleon escapes from Elba, returns to France and declares himself emperor once again. Napoleon and the French Empire cont.
Napoleon raises an army of 125,000 men and on June 15, 1815 meets the British and Prussians at Waterloo, Belgium. Napoleon and the French Empire cont. Duke of Wellington leads British against
Napoleons Army. Napoleon defeated once again. Napoleon and the French Empire cont. Napoleon exiled to the island of St. Helena in te middle of the South Atlantic. Napoleon dies in 1821,
never able to return to France. Napoleon and the French Empire cont. Napoleons Legacy Code of Napoleon made every man equal before the law. Napoleon and the French Empire cont.
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