Weather - St Joseph Grade School

Weather - St Joseph Grade School

WEATHER CHAPTER 4 WATER AND THE ATMOSPHERE LESSON 1 WORDS TO KNOW WATER CYCLE EVAPORATION CONDENSATION HUMIDITY RELATIVE HUMIDITY

PSYCHROMETER WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE WATER CYCLE, WATER VAPOR ENTERS THE ATMOSPHERE BY EVAPORATION FROM THE OCEANS AND OTHER BODIES OF WATER AND LEAVES BY CONDENSATION. WATER VAPOR IS ALSO ADDED TO THE AIR BY LIVING THINGS. WATER ENTERS THE ROOTS OF PLANTS, RISES TO THE LEAVES AND IS RELEASED INTO THE AIR AS WATER VAPOR.

ANIMALS ALSO RELEASE WATER VAPOR INTO THE AIR EVERY TIME THEY EXHALE WHAT IS RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND HOW IS MEASURED? WEATHER REPORTS USUALLY REFER TO THE WATER VAPOR IN THE AIR AS RELATIVE HUMIDITY. RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS THE PERCENTAGE OF WATER VAPOR THAT IS ACTUALLY IN THE AIR COMPARED TO THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT

OF WATER VAPOR THE AIR CAN HOLD AT A PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE. AIR WITH RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF 100 PERCENT IS SAID TO BE SATURATED. RELATIVE HUMIDITY CAN BE MEASURED WITH AN INSTRUMENT CALLED A PSYCHROMETER. IF THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS HIGH, THE WATER ON THE WET BULB EVAPORATES SLOWLY, AND THE WET BULB TEMPERATURE DOES NOT

CHANGE MUCH. IF THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS LOW, THE WATER ON THE WET BULB EVAPORATES RAPIDLY, AND THE WET-BULB TEMPERATURE DROPS BY A LARGE AMOUNT. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbcaCxuA1LI LETS REVIEW WHAT IS HUMIDITY?

HOW ARE HUMIDITY AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY DIFFERENT? LESSON 2 WORDS TO KNOW DEW POINT CUMULOUS CIRRUS STRATUS

LESSON 2 - CLOUDS CLOUDS FORM WHEN WATER VAPOR IN THE AIR CONDENSES TO FORM LIQUID WATER OR ICE CRYSTALS. MOLECULES OF WATER VAPOR IN THE AIR BECOME LIQUID IN A PROCESS CALLED CONDENSATION. COLD AIR HOLDS LESS WATER VAPOR THAT WARM AIR. THE WATER VAPOR CONDENSES INTO TINY DROPLETS OF WATER OR ICE CRYSTALS IF THE DEW POINT IS BELOW FREEZING, THE WATER VAPOR MAY

CHANGE DIRECTLY INTO ICE CRYSTALS. THE ROLES OF PARTICLES FOR WATER VAPOR TO CONDES AND FORM CLOUDS, TINY PARTICLES MUST BE PRESENT IN THE ATMOSPHERE SO THE WATER HAS A SURFACE ON WHICH TO CONDENSE. MOST OF THESE PARTICLES ARE SALT CRYSTALS, DUST FROM SOIL, OR SMOKE. ICE THAT IS DEPOSITED ON A SURFACE THAT IS BELOW FREEZING IS CALLED

FROST. WHAT ARE THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF CLOUDS? SCIENTISTS CLASSIFY CLOUDS INTO THREE MAIN TYPES BASED ON THEIR SHAPES: CIRRUS, CUMULOUS AND STRATUS. CLOUDS ARE FURTHER CLASSIFIED BY THEIR ALTITUDE. CIRRUS CLOUDS MADE OF ICE CRYSTALS AND INDICATES FAIR WEATHER

ALTOCUMULUS AND ALTOSTRATUS THESE ARE MEDIUM-LEVEL CLOUDS THAT ARE HIGHER THAN REGULAR CUMULOUS AND STRATUS CLOUDS. THESE INDICATE PRECIPITATION. FOG CLOUDS THAT FORM NEAR THE GROUND. TYPES OF CLOUDS HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=DNL5LPIL77M LETS REVIEW

BRIEFLY DESCRIBE THE SHAPE OF THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF CLOUDS. CLASSIFY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CLOUD TYPES AS LOW-LEVEL, MEDIUMLEVEL, OR HIGH-LEVEL: ALTOCUMULUS ALTOSTRATUS CIRROCUMULUS CIRRUS NIMBOSTRATUS STRATUS

LESSON 3 WORDS TO KNOW PRECIPITATION FLOOD RAIN GAUGE DROUGHT WHAT ARE THE COMMON TYPES OF PRECIPITATION? COMMON TYPES OF PRECIPITATION INCLUDE RAIN, FREEZING

RAIN, SNOW AND HAIL. AN OPEN ENDED TUBE THAT COLLECTS RAIN IS CALLED A RAIN GAUGE. THE AMOUNT OF RAIN IS MEASURED BY DIPPING A RULER INTO THE WATER OR BY READING A SCALE. FOR RAINFALL TO BE MEASURED ACCURATELY, A RAIN GAUGE MAY HAVE A FUNNEL AT THE TOP THAT COLLECTS TEN TIMES AS MUCH RAIN AS THE TUBE WOULD WITHOUT IT. TYPES OF PRECIPITATION

FREEZING RAIN - RAINDROPS CAN SOMETIMES FALL AS LIQUID WATER BUT FREEZE WHEN THEY TOUCH A COLD SURFACE. SNOW A SNOWFLAKE FORMS WHEN WATER VAPOR IN A CLOUD IS CONVERTED DIRECTLY INTO ICE CRYSTALS. HAIL HAIL FORMS ONLY INSIDE CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS DURING A THUNDERSTORMS. A HAILSTONE STARTS AS AN ICE PELLET INSIDE A COLD REGION OF A CLOUD. STRONG UPDRAFTS CARRY THE HAILSTONE UP THROUGH THE COLD REGION MANY TIMES. SLEET SOMETIMES RAINDROPS FALL THROUGH A LAYER OF AIR THAT IS

BELOW 0 DEGREE C, THE FREEZING POINT OF WATER. ICE PARTICLES SMALLER THAN 5 MILLIMETERS IN DIAMETER ARE CALLED SLEET. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF FLOODS AND DROUGHTS? SMALL OR LARGE, MANY FLOODS OCCUR WHEN VOLUME OF WATER IN A RIVER INCREASE SO MUCH THAT THE RICER OVERFLOWS ITS CHANNEL. A DAM IS A BARRIER ACROSS A RIVER THAT MAY REDIRECT THE

FLOW OF THE RIVER TO OTHER CHANNELS OR STORE FLOODWATERS SO THEY CAN BE RELEASED SLOWLY. A LEVEE IS AN EMBANKMENT BUILT ALONG A RIVER TO PREVENT FLOODING OF THE SURROUNDING LAND. PEOPLE SOMETIMES STRENGTHEN LEVEES WITH SANDBAGS OR STONES AND CONCRETE. LEVEE

DAMS DROUGHTS A DROUGHT CAN RESULT IN A SHORTAGE OF WATER FOR HOMES AND BUSINESS. DROUGHTS ARE USUALLY CAUSED BY DRY WEATHER SYSTEMS THAT REMAIN IN ONE PLACE FOR WEEKS OR MONTHS AT A TIME. LONG TERM DROUGHTS CAN DEVASTATE A REGION,

AFFECTING CROPS. LETS REVIEW WHAT ARE TWO WAYS TO HELP REDUCE THE DANGERS OF FLOODS? YOUR COMMUNITY IS CONSIDERING BUILDING A DAM ON A NEARBY RIVER TO REDUCE FLOODING. WOULD YOU SUPPORT THIS PROPOSAL? EXPLAIN WHAT IS PRECIPITATIONS? WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE IF PRECIPITATION FALLS AS FREEZING RAIN OR SLEET?

LESSON 4 WORDS TO KNOW AIR MASSES AIR MASS TROPICAL POLAR MARITIME CONTINENTAL JET STREAM FRONT

OCCLUDED CYCLONE ANTICYCLONE WHAT ARE THE MAJOR AIR MASSES ? FOUR MAJOR AIR MASSES INFLUENCE THE WEATHER IN NORTH AMERICA: MARITIME TROPICAL, CONTINENTAL TROPICAL, MARITIME POLAR, AND CONTINENTAL POLAR.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN AIR MASS DEPEND ON THE TEMPERATURES AND MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE REGION OVER WHICH THE AIR MASS FORMS. POLAR AIR MASSES HAVE HIGH AIR PRESSURE. WHETHER AN AIR MASS IS HUMID OR DRY DEPENDS ON WHETHER IT FORMS OVER WATER OR LAND. HOW AIR MASSES MOVE WHEN AN AIR MASS MOVES INTO AN AREA AND INTERACTS WITH OTHER AIR

MASSES, IT CAUSES THE WEATHER TO CHANGE, SOMETIMES DRASTICALLY. THESE ARE MASSES ARE COMMONLY MOVED BY PREVAILING WESTERLIES AND JET STREAMS. WHAT ARE THE MAIN TYPES OF FRONTS ? COLLIDING AIR MASSES CAN FORM FOUR TYPES OF FRONTS: COLD, WARM, STATIONARY AND OCCLUDED FRONTS. WHAT WEATHER DO CYCLONES AND

ANTICYCLONES BRING? AIR MASSES COLLIDE TO FORM FRONTS, THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE FRONTS SOMETIMES BECOME DISTORTED. THESE DISTORTIONS CAN SOMETIMES BE CAUSED BY SURFACE FEATURES SUCH AS MOUNTAINS, OR STRONG WINDS. CYCLONES A CIRCLED L ON A WEATHER MAP STANDS FOR LOW AND INDICATES AN AREA OF RELATIVELY LOW AIR PRESSURE. (CYCLONE) CYCLONES AND DECREASING AIR PRESSURE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CLOUDS, WIND AND PRECIPITATION.

ANTICYCLONES ARE HIGH-PRESSURE CENTERS OF DRY AIR. SHOWN ON A WEATHER MAP WITH AN H THE DESCENDING AIR IN AN ANTICYCLONE GENERALLY CAUSES DRY, CLEAR WEATHER. LESSON 5 WORDS TO KNOW STORM THUNDERSTORM LIGHTENING

HURRICANE STORM SURGE TORNADO EVACUATE HOW DO THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STORMS FORM? THERE ARE SEVERAL TYPES OF SEVERE STORMS: WINTER, THUNDERSTORMS,

HURRICANES, AND TORNADOS ALL YEAR ROUND, MOST PRECIPITATION BEGINS IN CLOUDS AS SNOW. IF THE AIR IS COLDER THAN 0 DEGREE CELSIUS ALL THE WAY TO THE GROUND, THE PRECIPITATION FALLS AS SNOW. THUNDERSTORMS FORM IN LARGE CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS, ALSO KNOWN AS THUNDERHEADS. A HURRICANE BEGINS OVER WARM OCEAN WATER AS A LOW PRESSURE AREA OR TROPICAL DISTURBANCE TORNADOS MOST COMMONLY DEVELOP THICK CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS

THE SAME CLOUDS THAT BRING THUNDERSTORMS. THUNDERSTORMS THUNDERSTORMS FORM IN LARGE CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS, KNOWN AS THUNDERHEADS. MOST CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS FORM IN HOT, HUMID AFTERNOONS OR EVENINGS. THEY ALSO FORM WHEN WARM AIR IS FORCE UPWARD ALONG A COLD FRONT. MANY THUNDERSTORMS FORM IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER IN SOUTHERN

STATES OR IN WESTERN PLAINS. THUNDERSTORMS CAN CAUSE SEVERE DAMAGE. FLOODING / FLASH FLOODS FIRE DUE TO LIGHTENING LIGHTENING DURING A THUNDERSTORM, AREAS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGES BUILD UP IN THE STORM CLOUDS. LIGHTENING IS SIMILAR TO THE SHOCKS YOU SOMETIMES FEEL WHEN YOU

TOUCH A METAL OBJECT ON A VERY DRY DAY. A LIGHTENING BOLT CAN HEAT THE AIR NEAR IT TO AS MUCH AS 30,000 DEGREES CELSIUS, MUCH HOTTER THAN THE SUNS SURFACE. THE RAPIDLY HEATED AIR EXPANDS EXPLOSIVELY, MAKING A THUNDER SOUND. HURRICANES A HURRICANE IS A TROPICAL CYCLONE WITH WINDS OF 119 KM/H OR HIGHER. A TYPICAL HURRICANE IS ABOUT 600 KILOMETERS ACROSS AND FORM IN THE

ATLANTIC, PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS. IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC, THEY ARE CALLED TYPHOONS. HURRICANE SEASON AUGUST OCTOBER A HURRICANE DRAWS ENERGY FROM THE WARM, HUMID AIR AT THE OCEANS SURFACE. AS THE AIR RISES AND FORMS CLOUDS, MORE AIR IS DRAWN INTO THE SYSTEM. INSIDE THE STORM ARE BANDS OF VERY HIGH WINDS AND HEAVY RAINS. THE LOWER THE AIR PRESSURE AT THE CENTER / EYE OF THE STORM, THE FASTER THE WINDS BLOW TOWARD THE CENTER. AT THE CENTER IS A RING OF CLOUDS, CALLED THE EYEWALL, THAT ENCLOSES A QUIET

EYE. AFTER THE EYE PASSES, THE STORM RESUMES, HOWEVER THE WINDS BLOW IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. HOW HURRICANES MOVE / DAMAGE HURRICANES CAN LAST LONGER THE OTHER STORMS A WEEK OR MORE AFTER A HURRICANE PASSES OVER LAND, IT NO LONGER HAS WARM, MOIST AIR TO DRAW ENERGY TO FOR. THEREFORE, THE STORM GRADUALLY WEAKENS. HURRICANES BRING HIGH WAVES AND SEVERE FLOODING, AS WELL AS WIND

DAMAGE. RESULTING IN STORM SURGES. TORNADOES A TORNADO IS ONE OF THE MOST FRIGHTENING AND INTENSE TYPES OF STORMS. IF A TORNADO OCCURS OVER A LAKE OR OCEAN, THE STORM IS CALLED A WATERSPOUT. TORNADOS ARE USUALLY BRIEF, BUT CAN BE DEADLY. TORNADOS MOST COMMONLY DEVELOP IN THICK CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS

THE SAME CLOUDS THAT BRING THUNDERSTORMS. SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER LATE IN THE AFTERNOON WHEN THE GROUND IS WARM. TORNADO ALLEY TORNADOS OCCUR IN NEARLY EVERY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HOWEVER, THE GREAT PLAINS OFTEN HAVE THE KIND OF WEATHER LIKE PATTERN THAT IS LIKELY TO CREATE THEM. A WARM, HUMID AIR MASS MOVES NORTH FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO INTO

THE LOWER GREAT PLAINS, AND A COLD, DRY AIR MASS MOVES SOUTH FROM CANADA. WHEN THE AIR MASSES MEET, THE COLD AIR MOVES UNDER THE WARM, FORCING AIR TO RISE. A LINE OF THUNDERSTORMS CALLED A SQUALL LINE IS LIKELY TO FORM. A SINGLE SQUALL LINE CAN PRODUCE TEN OR MORE TORNADOS HOW CAN YOU STAY SAFE IN A STORM? IF YOU ARE CAUGHT IN A SNOWSTORM, TRY TO FIND SHELTER FROM THE WIND.

DURING THUNDERSTORMS, AVOID PLACES WHERE LIGHTENING MAY STRIKE. ALSO, AVOID OBJECTS THAT CONDUCT ELECTRICITY, SUCH AS METAL OBJECTS AND BODIES OF WATER. IF YOU HEAR A HURRICANE WARNING AND ARE TOLD TO EVACUATE, LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY. THE SAFEST PLACE TO BE DURING A TORNADO IS IN A STORM SHELTER OR A BASEMENT. LETS REVIEW

WHAT IS A HURRICANE? HOW DO HURRICANES FORM? HOW DO HURRICANES DIFFER FROM TORNADOES? BASED ON THE SAFETY TIPS, LIST THE FOUR STORMS FROM LEAST TO MOST DANGEROUS. HOW CAN A COMMUNITY MAKE SURE PEOPLE STAY SAFE IN A STORM? LESSON 6 WORDS TO KNOW

METEOROLOGIST ISOBAR ISOTHERM PREDICTING THE WEATHER METEOROLOGISTS USE MAPS, CHARTS, COMPUTERS AND OTHER TECHNOLOGY TO ANALYZE WEATHER DATA AND TO PREPARE WEATHER FORECASTS. THE FIRST STEP IN WEATHER FORECASTING IS TO COLLECT

DATA, EITHER FROM DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OR THROUGH THE USE OF INSTRUMENTS. A BAROMETER SHOWS THAT AIR PRESSURE IS FALLING, POSSIBLY BRINGING SNOW OR RAIN. WEATHER REPORTERS GET THEIR INFORMATION FROM THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE, WHICH USES BALLOONS, NEWSPAPER WEATHER MAPS STANDARD SYMBOL ON WEATHER MAPS SHOW

FRONTS, AREAS OF HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE, TYPES OF PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURES. HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES ARE GIVEN IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT INSTEAD OF CELSIUS. WEATHER SERVICE MAPS DATA FROM MANY LOCAL WEATHER STATIONS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY ARE ASSEMBLED INTO WEATHER MAPS AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE. ON SOME WEATHER MAPS YOU SEE CURVED LINES. THESE LINES CONNECT

PLACES WITH SIMILAR CONDITIONS OF TEMPERATURE OR AIR PRESSURE. ISOBARS SAME AIR PRESSURE ISOTHERMS SAME TEMPERATURE LIMITS OF WEATHER FORECASTS AS COMPUTERS HAVE GROWN MORE POWERFUL, AND NEW SATELLITES AND RADAR TECHNOLOGIES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED, SCIENTISTS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO MAKE BETTER FORECASTS. BUT EVEN WITH EXTREMELY POWERFUL COMPUTERS, IT IS UNLIKELY THAT

FORECASTERS WILL EVER BE ABLE TO PREDICT THE WEATHER A MONTH IN ADVANCE. THIS HAS TO DO WITH THE SO CALLED BUTTERFLY EFFECT. A TINY EVENT MIGHT CAUSE A LARGER DISTURBANCE THAT COULD EVENTUALLY GROW INTO A LARGE STORM. LETS REVIEW WHAT IS A WEATHER MAP? HOW DO METEOROLOGISTS PREDICT THE WEATHER?

HOW ARE ISOBARS AND ISOTHERMS ALIKE? HOW DO THE DIFFER?

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