Water on Earth The Hydrosphere Water Demonstration 1000 ml of water represents ALL water on the Earth. Model: A limited REPRESENTATION of an object used to help
us UNDERSTAND its structure or how it works. Saltwater Vs. Freshwater Salt water: 972 ml Freshwater: 28 ml OF THAT 28 ml Ice Caps and Glaciars- 23.5 ml Groundwater: 4 ml
Lakes and rivers: 2 drops Soil and Air: 1 drop Water Distribution on Earth Water covers approximately 71% of the Earths surface (USGS). Most of this water (97%) is not drinkable because it is saltwater. The majority of freshwater (3%) exists in ice caps and glaciers. of the freshwater is frozen.
77% The remaining water on Earth is stored underground, in lakes and rivers, and in the atmosphere. Freshwater sources Water as Ice
Icebergs: a large piece of freshwater ice floating in open waters Glaciers: any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
Permafrost: permanent snow areas also house water as ice Glacier Iceberg Permafrost
Water in the air Water is stored in the air as water vapor and in clouds- It comes down as rain (water cycle) Water in the ground Groundwater: water found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, and rocks.
*** People use aquifers for drinking and irrigation Aquifer: a layer of saturated rock underground that can be tapped for a well. Groundwater From:http://www.groundwater.org/ get-informed/basics/ groundwater.html
Water on Land Lakes and Ponds: enclosed bodies of water- Ponds are smaller and allow light to reach the bottom. Wetlands
Wetland: An area where the water table is at, near or above the land surface long enough during the year to support adapted plant growth Swamp: a wetland dominated by trees Bogs: a wetland dominated by peat moss Marshes: a wetland dominated by grasses
Wetlands Rivers and River Basins River: A large channel along which water is continually flowing down a slopemade of many streams that come together Little rivers that flow into a big one are called tributaries
River Basin: All the land that surrounds and drains into a specific river. The water on this land drains into the main river. Rivers and River Basins Everyone lives in a river basin- even if you live nowhere near a river. There are 17 river basins in NC
River basins are divided by topography. Divide: The point between two river basins that separates one basin from another. The divide is a high area. River Basins inNC http://www.townofchapelhill.org/town-hall/departments-services/publicworks/stormwater-management/local-watersheds-water-quality/capefear-river-basin
River Basins In what ways do you think your actions affect river basins in North Carolina? Estuaries Estuary: areas where freshwater and saltwater mix. The somewhat salty and somewhat fresh water is brackish The largest estuary in North Carolina is the Pamlico Water
Sound. drains into the Pamlico Sound eastern NC and from southeastern Va. The estuary is fed from the Chowan, Roanoke, Pasquotank, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers
Estuaries Estuaries are important for several reasons: Environmental filters
Great environment for life Prevents Erosion protecting the coastline. https://www.google.com/search? q=estuaries+in+North+Carolina&safe=strict&rlz=1C1GGRV_enUS7 48US758&tbs=sur:f&tbm=isch&source=lnt&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV 07CI86LXAhUJNiYKHUCoAPUQpwUIHQ&biw=1242&bih=579&dpr=1. 1#imgrc=8kV0PtwiC7ZQ7M:
Estuaries as filters - Plants and animals in estuaries filter pollutants out of the water. - Marsh plants trap some chemicals and pathogens carried by rivers and move them into soils to be neutralized
Oysters filter water as they eat- one oyster can filter 25 gallons of water each day! Bacteria eat organic matter and then provide CO2, hydrogen sulfate, and methane into the atmosphere Estuaries as environments for life In an estuary, nutrients and sediment from rivers and oceans are trapped and constantly mixed. This causes a great environment for life. Plant growth is promoted
Sunlight reaches the bottom, allowing for photosynthesis Nutrients are constantly supplied in sediment from the rivers Estuaries are environments for life Because of the abundant plant life- it is a great environment for animal life -
Tall grasses can shelter baby animals from predators and give them a safe place to grow into adults and make the journey to the sea Many species adapt to the estuaries and are not found anywhere else. Estuaries Estuaries reduce erosion and flooding on the mainland -
Plants and shellfish anchor the shore against the tide Swamps and marshes take the initial impact of high winds moving in from the ocean, soak up heavy rain and storm surges, and release the extra water gradually into rivers and groundwater supplies. Threats to Estuaries
Toxins can accumulate in estuaries causing environmental and health problems Chemical pollution Sedimentation
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