Vertebrates -

Vertebrates -

Vertebrates May, 2012 Vertebrates Vertebrates Animals with a backbone Vertebrates

Phylum: Chordata Characteristics 1. Backbone 2. Backbone (vertebrate) surrounds and protects a nerve cord 3. Skull and vertebrate are made of either bone or cartilage

Vertebrate Characteristics (cont) 4. Endotherms (warm-blooded animals) that maintained a constant body temperature 5. Ectotherms (cold-blooded animals) that body temperature changes with their environment

Fish Class Examples- minnows, blue gills, clown fish Characteristics 1. Fins- help the fish move steer, stop, and balance 2. scales- protect the body 3. Well developed sense of vision, hearing, taste, and smell 4. lateral line system- row of sense organs

Fish Class Characteristics 5. Breathe with gills 6. External and internal fertilization 3 types of fish 1. Jawless fish- eel like

fish, smooth, slimy, no jaw 2.Cartilaginous fisheshave cartilage, no bones, strong jaws SHARKS! 3.Bony fishes- bony skeleton, can float in place without swimming because they have a swim bladder Swim bladder- balloon like organ filled with oxygen

and other gases that gives the fish buoyancy Bell Work

Define the following terms 1. endotherm 2. ectotherm 3. swim bladder 4. Name 2 characteristics of fish Amphibian Class 1. Amphibians evolved from fish and to adapt to life on land they needed lungs for

breathing 2. Lung- saclike organ that takes oxygen from the air and delivers it to the blood Amphibian Characteristics 1. Amphibian means double life because they live in water and on land 2. Eggs do not have a shell or membrane to prevent water loss so they are laid in

water 3. Ectotherms 4. Skin is smooth and slimy 5. They dont drink water, they absorb it through their skin Amphibian Characteristics (cont.) 6. breath by taking air into their lungs and they absorb it through their skin

7. Their skin is so thin and moist they must live in water or in damp habitats 8. Their skin is brightly colored to warn predators away. This is called warning coloration. 9. 3 chambered heart 10. Turn to page 70. in your book and draw the life cycle of a frog. Metamorphosis

Frog Metamorphosis Kinds of Amphibians 1. Caecilians- shaped like worms or snakes, they have no legs. They live in tropical areas 2. Salamanders- live

under stones or logs in damp woods Kinds of Amphibians 3. Frogs and toads have powerful legs for jumping, well developed ears for hearing, sticky

tongues, and vocal cords for calling Vocal sac-thin sac of skin that inflates with air and vibrates Reptiles 1. Some amphibians evolved special traits that prepared them for life in a drier

environment 2. They developed thick, dry skin that protected them from water loss 3. Their legs were stronger so they could walk and they evolved a special egg that could survive on dry land Reptile Characteristics 1. Some reptiles live in water but they use lungs

to breathe air 2. Thick dry skin, that is water tight and prevents losing water by evaporation 3. Ectothermic 4. Amniotic egg-surrounded by a shell that protects an developing embryo (most important adaptation) 5. Internal fertilization 6. 3 chamber heart

Types of Reptiles 1. Turtles and Tortoises 2. Crocodiles and Alligators 3. Lizards 4. Snakes Bell Work 1. Name the 4 types of reptiles.

2. What animal group did reptiles evolve from? 3. Are reptiles ectothermic or endothermic? 4. Name 3 characteristics of reptiles? Tuatara Oldest living reptile

Birds 1. Class: Aves 2. Birds are thought to be descendants of dinosaurs 3. Share some characteristics with reptiles A. Bird legs and feet are covered with thick dry

scales like reptiles B. Both have amniotic eggs with a shell Bird Characteristics 1. Beaks instead of teeth or jaws 2. Feathers 3. Wings

4. Need a lot of energy to be able to fly 5. Eat large amounts of food Bird Characteristics 6. Air Sacs- special sacs attached to the

lungs that increases the amount of oxygen that birds can take in 7. Lighter skeletonshollow bones 8. 4 chamber heart 9. Endothermic Kinds of Birds 1. Flightless Birds

A. penguins B. ostrich 2. Water Birds A. ducks B. loons 3. Birds of Prey A. owls

B. hawks Kinds of Birds 4. Perching birds A. cardinal B. chickadees 5. Non Perching birds A. red-bellied wood

pecker Bell Work 1. Name 4 characteristics of Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds

Mammals Origin of Mammals Fossil evidence shows 280 million years ago there were mammal-like reptiles called therapsids Characteristics of Mammals 1. Mammary glandssecrete nutritious milk

2. Endothermic 3. Hair somewhere on their bodies 4. Specialized teeth 5. 4 chamber heart 6. Large brains Characteristics of Mammals 7. Require oxygen to burn or break down

the food they eat 8. Diaphragm- muscle at the bottom of the rib cage that moves and helps with inhaling and exhaling 9. Produce sexually Kinds of Mammals 1. Monotremesmammals that lay eggs

A. have mammary glands B. echidnas C. duckbilled platypus Kinds of Mammals 2. Marsupialsmammals with pouches A. have mammary

glands B. opossums C. kangaroos D. koalas E. Tasmanian devils Kinds of Mammals 3. Placental-embryos stay in an organ called an uterus in the mother. The placenta in the uterus

supplies food and oxygen to the embryo. Examples Pigs

Horses Dolphins Whales Humans 4.Gestation period- time that the embryo develops in the mother

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