UV Reactor Validation and Application to Project

UV Reactor Validation and Application to Project

New York Section American Water Works Association and NYWEA NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium September 18-19, 2013 Thayer Hotel, West Point Dont We All Need Validation? An Overview of UV Disinfection Testing Requirements Water JAM 2010 Matthew Valade, PE Hazen and Sawyer Scott M. Alpert, PhD, PE Hazen and Sawyer Outline Validation What is it? Why is it needed? Validation Approaches

Implications for Projects Regulatory requirements Hydraulic conditions / facility layout Availability of pre-validated reactors NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Brief Case Studies UV Fundamentals Why Consider UV? Goal of highest-quality water that meets regulations and the cost expectations of our customers. Disinfection Inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Multiple barrier protection Virus inactivation (GW)

DBP reduction strategy Filter avoidance NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 UV-Advanced Oxidation Taste and odors Emerging contaminants 3 Need for Validation No method for real-time measurement of disinfection effectiveness Need to prove and document equipment performance Flow range Water quality

UV Transmittance (UVT) UV intensity at given operating conditions NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 LT2 regulatory requirement Regulatory Requirement NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 From LT2ESWTR (2006):

Must use reactors that have undergone validation testing. Must account for UVT, sleeve fouling, lamp aging, uncertainties, dose distributions, lamp failures, and inlet/outlet hydraulics. Must perform full-scale testing that conforms to installation and uses a test microorganism with known dose-response characteristics. Guidance Comparison for UV Pages of Text UVDGM 436 Typical Validation Report 288 NC AWWA Water JAMWEA

20102011 LT2ESWTR 133 LT2ESWTR LT2 LT2 UV Validation Validation 1 UVDGM Typical Validation Report What is Validation? Introduces test organism(s) into UV reactor aka bioassay or biodosimetry Samples are taken before and

after the reactor to ultimately determine log inactivation of challenge microorganism Conducted under a variety of operating conditions NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Flow Flow rate rate UV UV transmittance

transmittance Lamp Lamp power power (simulation of of sleeve sleeve fouling) fouling) Biodosimetry Validation Overview Inject a predetermined concentration of the Challenge Microbe to the inlet water of the reactor at various operating conditions. Selection of a Challenge

Microorganism / Surrogate (UV Sensitivity) Collimated beam apparatus: Specific UV doses to sample water that contains known concentration of the Challenge Microbe. NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Sample effluent to determine the degree of inactivation. Compare inactivation to UV Dose Response curve to determine

dose delivered by the reactor under various operating conditions. Inactivation is measured and plotted for the different UV doses to establish a DoseResponse curve. RED Validation Facility Set-Up: NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Johnstown, NY

Overview of Typical Validation Equipment Installation & Testing: Hydrostatic Hydrodynamic Headloss System Shakeout verify everything is working Microbial Testing/Validation Design Point(s) System Characterization NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Determine System Uncertainty/ Data Analysis

NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Validation Envelopes Reactor Validation in UVDGM EPAs UV Disinfection Guidance Manual approach for RED Development Provides validation testing guidance Detailed approach to: Addressing differences in challenge microbes Hydraulic setups Statistical analysis for biological analyses Available at EPAs website: NC AWWA

Water JAMWEA 20102011 http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/lt2/compliance.cfm http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/lt2/compliance.cfm ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ULTRAVIOLET ULTRAVIOLETDISINFECTION DISINFECTIONGUIDANCE GUIDANCE MANUAL MANUAL FOR FOR THE THE FINAL FINAL LONG LONG TERM TERM22ENHANCED

ENHANCED SURFACE SURFACE WATER WATER TREATMENT TREATMENTRULE RULE Overview of Validation Requirements Dval Dval RED Dreq VF = = = = = RED

Dreq VF Validated Dose Reduction Equivalent Dose Required (Regulated) Dose Validation Factor BRED x (1+Uval) NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 RED Bias (BRED ) is a function of test surrogate and dose RED distribution UVDGM UVDGM assumes

assumes a worst worst case dose distribution distribution Applies assumption to all reactors RED Bias RED bias (BRED RED) is a correction factor Difference between expected dose delivered to target pathogen and actual dose measured using a surrogate organism during testing Bioassay Organism Organisms have different sensitivities to UV Difference between Target and Challenge Organism will affect RED Special considerations related to MP systems NC AWWA Water

JAMWEA 20102011 Guidance Manual protocols account for different organism sensitivities The more sensitive the organism, the lower the bias factor UVDGM Checklists NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Checklist 5.3: Key Elements of Validation Report Checklist 5.4: Review for QA/QC Checklist 5.5: Review for Key Validation Report Elements

Impact of UV Wavelength Because MS2 is more sensitive to 240 nm than Crypto, MP systems validated with MS2 might be providing less Crypto inactivation than currently thought. Industry leaders (mfrs, regulators, consultants, utilities) working on potential solutions. Options include: NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Action Spectra Correction Factor (MS2 to Crypto) Doping of Quartz Sleeve During Validation Use of LSA During Validation WaterRF findings soon

NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Project Implications: Hydraulics Hydraulic Conditions Typical UV Train Layout Outlet Header Control Valve Inlet Header Flow Meter UV Reactor NC AWWA

Water JAMWEA 20102011 Isolation Valve Hydraulic Conditions UVDGM provides guidance on installation hydraulics Installation must be better than validation Provide hydraulic challenge during validation Three options: NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 1. 5 straight pipe diameters upstream between UV

reactor and any hydraulic configuration 2. Match validation for 10 diameters upstream and 5 diameters downstream 3. Velocity profiles within 20% UVDGM Recommended Piping NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Option 1 NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011

Velocity Profile into Reactor Validation Options NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Pre-validated Reactors Site-specific Validation Pre-validated Reactors One option for implementing UV is to use pre-validated reactors Reactors previously validated for a wide range of operating conditions Design considerations

NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Installation hydraulics Validation envelope: the range of conditions tested (flow, UVT, etc) Headloss Availability of Pre-Validated Reactors Flow capacities to >40 mgd Limited selection at higher flow rates Manufacturers with prevalidated reactors include: Calgon, Trojan, Wedeco, Aquionics, Atlantium, and others

NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Retrofits may limit available reactors due to hydraulic considerations Site Specific Validation Hydraulic conditions or water quality limitations Validation facility or on-site On-site requires additional equipment, tanks, piping, etc NC AWWA Water JAMWEA

20102011 Costs and schedule need to be considered in planning State Requirements for Validation and System Approval State Regulator has final approval UVDGM is only a guidance document No national standard What is acceptable varies from state to state NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 MS-2 accepted biodosimeter

T1, T4, T7, Qbeta , etc. are other options which beta may or may not be accepted by a state regulatory agency Case Studies NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 1. 2. 3. Pre-validated Reactors Site Specific Validation Beyond Validation

Pre-validated Reactors: New Design Road WTP Expansion Project Primary Water Supply for Frederick County, MD 6.6 mgd Surface Water Treatment Plant Need to expand capacity: 10 mgd quickly Unit Unit process optimization 25 mgd in 2 years time NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011

New New unit unit processes processes Coordination with Regulators Frederick Co. sought to re-rate filters Originally approved at 4 gpm/ft22; Need 5.5 gpm/ft22 Regulators initially did not agree to re-rating 4 gpm/ft22 with one filter out of service Would limit capacity to 5.3 MGD MDE agreed to 5 gpm/ft22 and all filters in service if UV Disinfection were installed NC AWWA Water JAMWEA

20102011 UV designed to Bin 4 (2.5-log additional inactivation) Pre-validated Equipment UV equipment was pre-selected Technical basis Capital and life-cycle cost basis Space constraints limited the number of manufacturers selected Medium Pressure UV was selected Lowest life-cycle cost NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011

Facility design accounted for validation hydraulics Site Specific Validation: Retrofit into Existing Pump Station Unfiltered supply requires UV to meet LT2 Cost of new facility is prohibitive Fitting UV equipment into existing pump station saves significant capital cost No difference in operating cost NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Site specific validation required Installation of UV on Pump Suction Header

To Pumps UV Reactor Isolation Valves NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Strainer Contractor selected equipment based on Specifications UV manufacturer using 3rd party validation with 10D upstream/5D downstream piping (Validation Option 2) Validation being performed to account for MP issues Beyond Validation:

Dempsey E. Benton WTP Surface Water Source Permitted Capacity: 16 mgd Design Capacity: 20 mgd WTP Installed UV for multi-barrier protection Currently requesting Giardia and NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Cryptosporidium credit for UV to allow chloramination conversion prior to clearwells to help with DBPs. UV Disinfection System Design Three 10-mgd UV reactors (N+1 redundancy)

Min. design dose = 40 mJ/cm22 UVDGM RED targets for 3-log inactivation Giardia Giardia == 34 34 mJ/cm mJ/cm22 Crypto. Crypto. == 36 mJ/cm22 Validated Dose = 55 mJ/cm22 Min. operational target = 50 mJ/cm22 Design UV Transmittance = 90% NaOCl NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Ozone

Ozone Contactor SuperPulsator GAC BioFilters NH3 UV Dual-Media Disinfection Filters 5-MG Storage Tank Application for Regulatory Credit Regulator Interest

NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011 Validation vs. Installation System hydraulics Monthly Reporting, Monitoring, and Off-Spec Events System Maintenance Compliance with Latest UV Knowledge Lamp Replacement and Breakage Risk Standard Operating Procedures To ensure a successful project. NC AWWA Water JAMWEA

20102011 Must work with the State from the beginning Verify pre-validated reactors meet State requirements Allow for time & budget if site-specific validation is required Be familiar with UVDGM checklists to understand key criteria of validations and validation reports Spend extra time upfront will save time in the end! Thank You! NC AWWA Water JAMWEA 20102011

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