Using Word Analysis Strategies - Virginia Department of Education

Using Word Analysis Strategies - Virginia Department of Education

Spring 2013 Student Performance Analysis End-of-Course Reading Standards of Learning Presentation may be paused and resumed using the arrow keys or the mouse. 1 Using Word Analysis Strategies SOL 9.3, 10.3, and 11.3 The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations,

and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts. a)Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to understand complex words. b)Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases. 2 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.3a, 10.3a, and 11.3a Students need additional practice selecting multiple answers

for words using similar affixes. Which words have a suffix meaning state or quality? antiquated irrelevant 3 composure detriment obstinate precarious

Suggested Practice for SOL 9.3a, 10.3a, and 11.3a Students need additional practice selecting more than one correct synonym for a given word using informational reading selections. In 1813 the famous naturalist John Audubon observed a vast flock of passenger pigeons as he traveled through Kentucky. The flock took three days to pass above; in such a black cloud, they obliterated the sun at times. Conservatively, he estimated their numbers at 1.1 billion birds. How could a bird that was the most prolific in North America become extinct?

Identify synonyms for obliterated. Possible answers: concealed, eliminated, obscured 4 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.3b, 10.3b and 11.3b Students need additional practice using context clues to determine word meaning. During the competition, the lithe gymnast rolled and tumbled across the mat on the gym floor. Her graceful bends and nimble acrobatics displayed her exceptional abilities. She

had clearly spent countless hours practicing her rigorous routine. The result was a polished performance that won her first place. Which phrases help you understand the meaning of lithe? graceful bends, nimble acrobatics 5 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.3b, 10.3b and 11.3b

Other suggestions: What are the context clues in this paragraph which help determine the meaning of (insert tested word)? Which words help the reader understand the meaning of (insert tested word)? 6 Determining Main Idea and Authors Purpose SOL 9.4, 9.5, and 10.5 SOL 9.4

The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of literary texts including narratives, narrative nonfiction, poetry, and drama. a) Identify authors main idea and purpose. 7 Determining Main Idea and Authors Purpose SOL 9.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. a) Recognize an authors intended purpose for writing and

identify the main idea. SOL 10.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. b) Recognize an authors intended audience and purpose for writing. 8 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4a, 9.5a, and 10.5b Students need additional practice identifying the main idea and authors purpose when using texts with more complex

sentence structure and vocabulary. 9 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4a, 9.5a, and 10.5b In a flat country stretches of water are doubly welcome. They take the place of hills, and give the eye what it craves, distance; which softens angles, conceals details, and heightens colors, in short, transfigures the world with its romancers touch, and blesses us with illusion. So, as I loitered along the south road, I never tired of looking across the river to the long, wooded island, and over that to the line of sand-hills that marked the

eastern rim of the East Peninsula, beyond which was the Atlantic. The white crests of the hills made the sharper points of the horizon line. Elsewhere clumps of nearer pine-trees intervened, while here and there a tall palmetto stood, or seemed to stand, on the highest and farthest ridge looking seaward. But particulars mattered little. (from essay A Florida SketchBook by Bradford Torrey) What is the main idea of this excerpt? Possible answers relate to the sentence, In a flat country stretches of water are doubly welcome. 10

Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4a, 9.5a, and 10.5b Tibet is a vast area in Central Asia full of towering, majestic mountains and home to many monasteries where monks live and work together. Tibetan monks practice Buddhism, a religion founded on principles of peace and understanding. For these Buddhist monks, sand painting represents an important part of the core of their lives and works. They create these designs in an effort to bring about healing for both their bodies and minds. Using colored sand and sometimes small stones and powdered flowers, the monks work in collaboration to craft their paintings. They spend up to several weeks carefully forming millions of grains of sand into complex, intricate patterns. When a painting is finished, it looks similar to a woven

tapestry. The boldly colorful patterns include precise common shapes such as squares and triangles with amazingly detailed figures of people and natural objects within them. 11 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4a, 9.5a, and 10.5b What is the main purpose of this paragraph? a) To summarize the process of creating sand paintings and its religious significance to the monks b) To explain the principles of peace and understanding on

which Buddhism is founded c) To describe the various characteristics and overall appearance of Tibetan sand paintings d) To emphasize the collaborative aspect of the process that the monks have developed 12 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4a, 9.5a, and 10.5b Other suggestions: The focus of paragraph (insert number) is mostly on . . . . Which idea from the selection best reflects the authors main

point? Which sentence best expresses the main idea of . . . ? This section is mainly about . . . . What is the purpose of paragraph (insert number)? 13 Drawing Inferences SOL 10.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze literary texts of different cultures and eras. b) Make predictions, draw inferences, and connect prior

knowledge to support reading comprehension. 14 Drawing Inferences SOL 10.5 The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts. f) Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence. SOL 11.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. d) Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support. 15 Suggested Practice for SOL 10.4b, 10.5f, and 11.5d Students need additional practice drawing inferences using implied and explicit information in fiction and nonfiction texts. Before the Arctic surveyors could continue their work, they

had to ensure the safety of the dogs and agree to the terms of exploring unknown, possibly dangerous areas of the tundra. Which feelings are conveyed in this excerpt? consideration optimism indifference fright caution 16 Suggested Practice for SOL 10.4b, 10.5f, and 11.5d

Other suggestions: Looking at both selections, what may the reader infer/conclude about . . . ? Based on the selection, the relationship between (insert characters name) and (insert second characters name) could best be described as . . . . 17 Suggested Practice for SOL 10.4b, 10.5f, and 11.5d Additional suggestions:

The reader can conclude/infer that . . . . Why did ____ most likely happen? 18 Using Literary Terms SOL 9.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of literary texts including narratives, narrative nonfiction, poetry, and drama. d) Use literary terms in describing and analyzing selections.

19 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4d Students need additional practice using literary terms to describe and analyze literary texts. Other suggestions: The author uses sensory language in this paragraph to . . . . The selection is told from (insert characters name) point of view in order to . . . .

20 Relating the authors style and its literary effect SOL 9.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of literary texts including narratives, narrative nonfiction, poetry, and drama. h) Explain the relationship between the authors style and literary effect. 21

Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4h Students need additional practice relating the authors style and its literary effect. Suggestions: The language in this sentence suggests that the author . . . . Which emotion is conveyed at the beginning of paragraph (insert number)? 22

Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4h Additional suggestions: The purpose of the images in paragraphs (insert number) and (insert number) is . . . . Which word best describes the tone of the selection? 23 Suggested Practice for SOL 9.4h Other suggestions: How does the authors word choice affect the tone of the

story? This paragraph conveys the narrators feelings of . . . . In this paragraph, what are some of the effects of the authors use of imagery? 24 Using Imagery and Figures of Speech SOL 11.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze relationships among American literature, history, and

culture. g) Explain how imagery and figures of speech appeal to the readers senses and experience. 25 Suggested Practice for SOL 11.4g Students need additional practice explaining how imagery and figures of speech used in literature appeal to the readers senses and experience. Suggestions:

The purpose of the figurative language in these sentences is to . . . . What does the figurative language suggest? The imagery in this sentence helps to . . . . 26 Suggested Practice for SOL 11.4g Other suggestions: The author uses imagery in this selection to . . . . The author uses figurative language in this paragraph to show that . . . .

What does the authors use of imagery in the story suggest? 27 Suggested Practice for SOL 11.4g Additional suggestions: At the end of the selection, the narrator conveys a sense of anticipation through the image of . . . . Why did the author include a description of ___ in the story? How does the authors use of imagery affect the reader? How is imagery used in this stanza?

28 Analyzing the Use of Literary Elements and Dramatic Conventions SOL 11.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze relationships among American literature, history, and culture. j) Analyze the use of literary elements and dramatic conventions including verbal, situational and dramatic irony used in American literature.

29 Suggested Practice for SOL 11.4j Students need additional practice analyzing the use of literary elements and dramatic conventions. Other suggestions: Based on the poem, the reader may best conclude that ___ represents the speakers . . . . In the two selections, which image symbolizes . . . ? Which is an example of situational irony in this selection?

Which words show that (insert characters name) is ironic? 30 Identifying Characteristics of Texts SOL 9.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. d) Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts. 31

Suggested Practice for 9.5d Students need additional practice identifying the characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts. Suggestions: How can the reader tell that this a technical (expository or persuasive) text? What is the purpose of expository (technical or persuasive) text? 32

Evaluating Clarity and Accuracy of Information SOL 9.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. f)Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information. 33 Suggested Practice for 9.5f Students need additional practice evaluating the clarity and

accuracy of information found in nonfiction texts. Suggestions: Which idea from the selection would be hardest to verify as a fact? Which ideas would be the easiest to verify? 34 Suggested Practice for 9.5f Additional suggestions: Which would help evaluate the accuracy of the information

used in this article? In this selection, which information in the ___ section is verified by the ____ section? 35 Organizing and Synthesizing Information for Use in Presentations SOL 9.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction

texts. j) Organize and synthesize information from sources for use in written and oral presentations. 36 Suggested Practice for 9.5j Students need additional practice organizing and synthesizing information from sources to use in written and oral presentations. Suggestions:

Which is the best source of information about ___? Becky is preparing a speech about seat belt laws. Which information would be best to include in her speech? Why? 37 Suggested Practice for 9.5j Additional suggestion: Which aid would be most effective (or least effective) for a presentation about __?

38 Practice Items This concludes the student performance analysis for the End-of-Course reading tests administered during the spring 2013 test administration. There are practice items available on the Virginia Department of Education Web site which will also help students practice the skills associated with the 2010 English Standards of Learning. The practice items are located at:

http:// www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/practice_items/index.shtml# reading 39 Contact Information For questions regarding assessment, please contact [email protected] For questions regarding instruction or the English Standards of Learning, please contact Tracy Fair Robertson, English Coordinator

[email protected] 804-371-7585 40

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