Unit 3: Cells 3.4 Viruses! - mrsslovacek.weebly.com

Unit 3: Cells 3.4 Viruses! - mrsslovacek.weebly.com

Unit 4: Cells 4.5 Active Transport Active Transport Overview Moves substances up (against) the concentration gradient.

From areas of low concentration to high concentration. This movement requires energy from the cell! The energy is supplied by ATP Most substances require a carrier or transport protein to move across the membrane.

Solute Pumping: Sodium-Potassium Pump Moves 3 Sodium Ions (Na+) out and 2 Potassium Ions (K-) in. Na+ has a higher concentration outside the cell

K- has a higher concentration inside the cell http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/ch apter2/animation__ how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html Steps: Inside: 3 sodium (Na) ions and an ATP bind to the

pump A phosphate group is removed from the ATP, releasing energy. The pump changes shape. It releases the sodium outside the cell Steps (cont.)

Outside: 2 potassium ions (K) bind to the pump. The phosphate group is released. The pump changes shape again. It releases the potassium inside the cell. Why is it important? It keeps Sodium from accumulating in the

cell. Sodium is constantly diffusing into the cell through ion channels. If it builds up, it causes water to move into the cell. This could cause the cell to swell or burst! Maintains the concentration gradients

This helps us move other substances, like glucose, across the membrane. Movement in Vesicles Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Endocytosis Proteins and polysaccharides are too big to move across the membrane so they must enter through vesicles. Steps: 1. The membrane forms a pouch around the substance.

2. The pouch closes up and is then pinched off to form a vesicle. 3. The vesicle then fuses with Lysosomes or other organelles. Types of Endocytosis 1. Pinocytosis: Tiny pockets form along the cell membrane,

fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell This allows cells to take up liquid from the surrounding environment 2. Phagocytosis: Extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole. The cell then engulfs it

Amoebas use this method to take in food White blood cells use this method to eat damaged cells. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z_mXDvZQ6dU Exocytosis Some substances are too large to move out of the cell across the membrane, so the exit the cell

through exocytosis. The cell uses exocytosis to export proteins out of the cell. Steps: 1. The vesicle inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane. 2. The vesicle opens and releases its contents

outside the cell.

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