# Unit 2: Design development Dr. Basil Hamed Technical English ...

Chapter 5: Locating and setting out Dr. Hatem Elaydi Engineering Technical English Islamic University of Gaza February 13, 2017 A. Initial design phase The drawing below shows the position of some holes for bolts. The distances between the holes can be

shown as running dimensions or as chain dimensions. In both cases, the centreline (CL)- a line through the centre of the hole- is marked (drawn), and the distances between the centrelines are given. Distances between centrelines are called centre-to-centre (c/c) dimensions. The holes below are at 100 mm centres. 2 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 A. Initial design phase Centrelines are often used as reference points. These

can be measured from, in order to locate -that is, give the position of- points on components. The measurements are offset from the centreline - each is at a certain distance from it, and the offsets are measured at a right-angle to the centreline (at 90 degrees to it). Note: We can say at a right-angle to X, at 90 degrees to X, or at right-angles to X. 3 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5

B. Grids In large designs, notably those of structures, grids are used for horizontal positioning. The gridlines have numbers and letters. All numbered gridlines are parallel with one another that is, they are straight, and are regular distances apart. Lettered lines also run parallel with one another, and are perpendicular to (at a rightangle to) the numbered lines. The plan below shows part of the floor of an office building. The perpendicular gridlines intersect at (cross at) the centres of columns. An opening (hole) in the floor is shown using coordinate dimensions. These allow the site engineer to set out (mark the position of) the opening by squaring off the gridlines- marking lines that run at a right-angle to them- and then measuring along these

lines using a tape measure. 4 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 B. Grids A theodolite- an optical device used for measuring angles- can be used to square off gridlines accurately. To double-check dimensions- that is, carry out an extra check -diagonal measurements can be used, as in the engineer's sketch below. The length of diagonals can be calculated using

Pythagoras's Theorem. 5 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 6 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 7 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5

Exercise 5.1 Look at the sentences about the design of ship. Replace the underlined words and expressions with alternative words and expressions 1. The handrail is fixed by 115 brackets, which are 175 mm apart, 2. 3. 4. 5. 8 between their centres.

The dimensions are measured from the line down the middle of the ship. How far is the widest point of the ship located away from the centreline? Are the adjacent lengths of handrail at 90 degrees to each other? These dimensions allow you to establish the position of the hole. Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 Exercise 5.2 Look at the extracts from technical discussions on a construction. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. ne, intersect, parallel, perpendicular, set out, square off

9 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 Exercise 5.3 Match the two parts of the sentences .to complete the extract from a training manual In civil engineering, the following precautions can help to prevent costly setting-out mistakes. (1) Always use a steel tape measure (never a plastic one) (2) Check that both diagonals of rectangular shapes are equal (3) Measure dimensions in two directions, from parallel gridlines, (4) Add up chain dimensions to give running dimensions

to check that corners are right-angles. c. to prevent slight errors being multipl ensure it does not stretch under tension. d. to double-check your measurements 10 Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5 End of Chapter Five 11

Dr. Hatem Elaydi, IUG, Spring 2017, Chapter 5

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