Chapters 30b, 31b,32 SSUSH 20 d; 21 c; 24 c,e,f; 25 ac 1960s AND 1970s The Vietnam War During the 1800s France established a colony in
the Southeast Asian country of Vietnam. Following WWII, war erupted as Vietnamese nationalists wanted independence from France. This greatly concerned President Eisenhower b/c of the nationalists ties to communism. At a conference in Geneva, Switzerland, countries met to search for a peaceful solution. In 1954, the Geneva Accords were drafted; it called for Vietnam to be divided into 2 separate nations.
Geneva Conference French Indochina Anticommunist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship
to the USS Montague during Operation Passage to Freedom in August 1954 The Vietnam War In the North, Ho Chi Minh established a
communist-backed govt. In the South, the US supported the govt of Ngo Dinh Diem. It was not long before war broke out b/t the 2 sides. Even in his own country, Diem faced opposition. He imprisoned many people who criticized his govt and he allowed US money sent to help his people end up in the hands of corrupt politicians. Diem also alienated the mostly Buddhist population by trying to force his own Catholic views on them.
H Ch Minh Ng nh Dim The Vietnam War In the early 1960s, both Eisenhower and Kennedy feared the spread of communism. Both sent military advisors to aid South
Vietnam against the North and against communist rebels in the South known as the Viet Cong. Eventually, JFK and his Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, realized that communism would not be defeated in Vietnam as long as Diems corrupt govt controlled the South. In 1963, when Diem was overthrown and killed by members of his own military, JFK and McNamara worried about how they might pull US military
personnel out of South Vietnam. Viet Cong Flag, Soldier, Uniform, & Weapons Robert McNamara The Vietnam War Unfortunately, JFK was assassinated in November
1963 before any decision was reached. The presidency then fell to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. LBJ vowed that he would not lose Vietnam to the Communists. In August 1964, just months before the Election of 1964, a key incident occurred in the Gulf of Tonkin. Johnson announced to the nation during his campaign that the North Vietnamese had attacked US ships.
The Vietnam War Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Details were sketchy and some questioned if the event even occurred the way Johnson claimed, but Johnson was able to use the incident to get Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. This gave the president the authority to take all
necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States It gave Johnson the power to take military actions in Vietnam w/o having to get approval from Congress. Painting of USS Maddox firing upon three P-4 torpedo boats In 2005, an internal National Security
Agency historical study was declassified; it concluded that the Maddox had engaged the North Vietnamese Navy on August 2, but that there may not have been any North Vietnamese Naval vessels present during the incident of August 4. The report stated: [I]t is not simply that there is a different story as to what happened; it
is that no attack happened that night. [...] In truth, Hanoi's navy was engaged in nothing that night but the salvage of two of the boats damaged on August 2. The Vietnam War Barry Goldwater (1964) LBJ (Democrat) won the election of 1964 by
portraying his opponent Barry Goldwater (Republican), as a man ready to plunge the US into a nuclear war over Vietnam. US Senator from Arizona, Barry Goldwater, was actually a much more conservative figure. Conservatism is the belief that the govt should not try to regulate too much. Conservatives would rather keep taxes low and have a govt that does as little as possible. They believe in personal freedoms and property
rights rather than govt trying to control how society operates. Barry Goldwater United States Senator from Arizona January 3, 1969 January 3, 1987 The Vietnam War Barry Goldwater (1964) Goldwaters ideas appealed to many
conservative southern Democrats, western conservatives, and Republicans. Despite Johnsons easy victory in the 1964 election, Goldwaters ability to win the Republican nomination and parts of the South over a Democratic president had historic significance. The Vietnam War
Barry Goldwater (1964) First, it was a lesson in what conservatives needed to do to mobilize an effective campaign. Second, it marked a major shift in southern politics; the days of the Solid South were over. Once elected LBJ was prepared to increase US military presence in Vietnam.
Goldwater versus Johnson The Vietnam War By 1965, the Viet Cong were continuing to expand as more of the poor in South Vietnam were drawn to their cause.
Key to the Viet Congs efforts were the supplies that came from North Vietnam along what is called the Ho Chi Minh Trail. To try and cut off this support, Johnson ordered an intense bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The operation was code named Operation Rolling Thunder. During this time, the US dropped tons of explosives. The bombings destroyed bridges, supply lines, and
villages. They also killed many civilians in the process. Coolies took supplies south on the Ho Chi Minh Trail (1959) A 23-year-old man who nearly starved to death after spending one month in a Vietcong internment
camp, 1966. The Vietnam War B/t 1965 and 1968, the US military presence increased dramatically. On January 30, 1968, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong launched a major coordinated attack against the US and South Vietnamese forces. Known as the Tet Offensive, it produced heavy
fighting, even in the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon. The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese were eventually turned back, but they won a major psychological victory. The Tet Offensive showed that the Communists could launch a coordinated attack. It also led many people in the US to question how the govt was handling the war and whether US troops should be there at all.
General William Westmoreland Some Viet Cong targets in South Vietnam U.S. Marines battle in Hamo village The Vietnam War Attitudes at Home Few events in US history have divided people
like the Vietnam War. On one hand, many people believed that it was important to fight communism at every turn; they believed Vietnam was a noble cause and that it was not wrong to send in troops. Such people were more upset with the govt for limiting the militarys ability to win the war.
The Vietnam War Attitudes at Home On the other hand, a growing number of citizens and activists proclaimed that it was wrong for US soldiers to be in Vietnam at all. Some even viewed the US actions as criminal. Johnson found himself caught in the middle. His popularity plummeted as he was blamed for failures in Vietnam.
So great was the weight of the ordeal that Johnson decided not to run for re-election in 1968. Vietnam War Protests Doves Actress Jane Hanoi Jane Fonda and Politician John Kerry The Vietnam War
Richard Nixon (Republican) took office in 1969 and advocated a policy of Vietnamization. He wanted South Vietnamese soldiers to take the place of the US soldiers in Vietnam. However, while Nixon wanted to reduce the numbers of US troops in Southeast Asia, he was also determined to make sure that South Vietnam did not fall to the Communists. He combined his withdrawal of US troops with
renewed bombing against North Vietnam and the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia, believing that certain areas of these countries were supporting the Viet Cong. The Vietnam War In April 1970, Nixon went even further and authorized US troops to invade Cambodia for the purpose of destroying Communist
training camps. Nixon did not expect these moves to end the war, but he hoped that they would give him more negotiating power for ending the war on favorable terms for the US. The Vietnam War The US, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and leaders of the Viet Cong met in Paris, France in January 1973.
There they signed the Paris Peace Accords, officially ending US involvement in Vietnam. The agreement called for: Withdrawal of US troops within 60 days. Release of prisoners of war. All parties involved would end military activities in Laos and Cambodia. The 17th parallel would continue to divide Vietnam.
The Vietnam War The Troops Come Home The return of US soldiers caused almost as much division as the war itself. While many appreciated their efforts and saw them as returning heroes, others viewed them as having participated in an unjust war against a Third World country, others just felt let down b/c they were unsure about why troops were in
Vietnam in the first place. As a result, the bravery and sacrifice of thousands of soldiers was overshadowed by controversy and disgust. "No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now. Rarely have so many people been so wrong about so much. Never have the consequences of their misunderstanding been so tragic."
--Richard Nixon The Environmentalist Movement The 1960s also saw the birth of the modern environmentalist movement. Environmentalists are concerned with preserving the Earths resources and species of life. They often focus their efforts on drawing attention to and combating ways in which human beings
negatively affect the environment. Although calls for govt action date all the way back to the late 1800s, the modern movement began b/c of scientist/writer, Rachel Carson. The Environmentalist Movement Carson published a book in 1962 entitled Silent Spring, in which she argued that mankinds use of certain chemicals (especially
pesticides) was poisoning the environment. Despite protests from several chemical companies, Carsons book won critical acclaim and led to the banning of DDT and more govt restrictions on various chemicals. Its message, combined with the activist atmosphere of the 1960s, fueled an entire movement. The Environmentalist Movement
As more people joined the cause, the US celebrated the first ever Earth Day in April 1970. Earth Day became an annual event meant to encourage concern for the environment and draw attention to environmental issues. That same year, President Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a federal agency whose purpose is to
enforce laws aimed at maintaining a safe and clean environment. Presidency of Richard Nixon Most people remember Nixon as a president whose greatest accomplishment was foreign policy. Nixon took a new approach towards the USSR and China; he introduced the policy of dtente. Under dtente, Nixon sought to use diplomacy
rather than intimidation to ease tensions that existed b/t the US and Communist nations. Nixon became the first president to publicly acknowledge the Communist govt of China and he even visited China during his first term in office. Presidency of Richard Nixon Nixon also realized that, although both the USSR
and China were communist, the 2 nations disagreed with one another on some major issues. For this reason, Nixon believed that good relations with the Chinese would give him more bargaining power with the Soviets. In 1972, after extensive talks with Soviet leader, Leonid Brezhnev, the US and USSR signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), which limited development of certain nuclear weapons.
Dtente (French for 'relaxation') is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1970s, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. Dtente is an alternative strategy to rollback, the strategy of destroying an enemy state, and containment,
which means preventing the expansion of the enemy state. Presidency of Richard Nixon At home, Nixon wanted to cut govt programs and spending and give more power back to the states. He wanted to turn back the aggressive tide of civil rights legislation and he advocated a middle road b/t integration and segregation.
Nixon also took advantage of vacancies on the Supreme Court to nominate judges that he believed would interpret the Constitution the way that he did. Despite Nixons concerns, civil rights continued to advance during his time in office and even won key court victories. Presidency of Richard Nixon Another topic to gain attention was the idea of
affirmative action: policy aimed at increasing minority representation in the workplace, educational institutions, social settings, etc. by imposing guidelines requiring the hiring or acceptance of minority candidates, or by actively pursuing recruitment of such candidates. In 1978, the SC ruled on affirmative action in the case of Regents of UC v. Bakke. In 1973 & 1974, a white man named Allan Bakke
applied to medical school at the University of California. He was not accepted either time; he challenged the universitys affirmative action program that guaranteed 16 places in each new class to qualified minorities. Presidency of Richard Nixon Believing that his qualifications were superior to those of other accepted students, Bakke sued the
University of California Medical School. The SC ruled in favor of Bakke, stating that, while race could be used as a consideration in admission, the institution of racial quotas is a violation of the 14th Amendments equal protections clause. The case did not strike down affirmative action, but it did set a precedent that quotas cannot be used in the interest of increasing minority representation.
Presidency of Richard Nixon The womens movement of the 1960s-70s led to a campaign to amend the Constitution. Many of the movements supporters wanted an amendment making sexual discrimination illegal. In 1972, the Equal Rights Amendment passed Congress and was sent to the states for ratification.
This amendment was considered highly controversial, however, and gained opposition from women and men. It failed to be ratified by enough states and was never added as an amendment to the Constitution. Presidency of Richard Nixon Prior to 1973, states could outlaw or restrict
abortions during a womans pregnancy. Citing an implied (not directly stated in the Constitution) right to privacy, the SC ruled state laws restricting a womans right to an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy to be unconstitutional. Roe v. Wade remains one of the most controversial decisions in US history.
Presidency of Richard Nixon Despite some of the social conflicts and economic woes facing the nation, most citizens felt far more positive about Nixon than they did about the liberal Democratic candidate, George McGovern, in the 1972 presidential election. As a result, Nixon easily won re-election to a second term. War protests and social unrest, however, left
President Nixon and those close to him fearing the possibility of political conspiracies (plots to undermine the govt). The current dilemma in Vietnam is a clear demonstration of the limitations of military power. ... [Current U.S. involvement] is a policy of moral debacle and political defeat. ... The trap we have fallen into there will haunt us in every corner of this revolutionary world if we
do not properly appraise its lessons." Presidency of Richard Nixon Prior to the 1972 election, officials loyal to the president devised a number of schemes meant to protect him. One of the plans involved wiretapping phones at the Democratic National Committee headquarters.
The attempt failed, and police arrested 5 men for breaking into the Watergate office complex. What followed came to be known as the Watergate Scandal. Presidency of Richard Nixon Nixon had not known about the plan, but he did participate in the cover-up. Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward
and Carl Bernstein pursued the Watergate story and played a major role in revealing how high up the scandal went. In 1973, the US Senate formed a Watergate Committee to investigate the scandal. Key points in the hearings came when the presidents personal counsel, John Dean, testified that Nixon knew about the cover-up. Presidency of Richard Nixon
Later, an additional aid revealed that a secret taping system in the presidents office recorded conversations that proved the presidents involvement. Nixon refused to release the tapes, claiming that he was not required to do so by law. The Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to deliver the tapes, however, and he finally complied. Although the released transcripts had an 18.5
minute portion missing, there was still enough on the tapes to seriously damage the president. Presidency of Richard Nixon Four days later, Richard M. Nixon became the only president in history to resign from office. Had he not done so, he would have been impeached by the House of Representatives
and likely found guilty by the Senate. Nixons Resignation Speech In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the Nation. Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere, to make every possible effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few days, however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that
effort. As long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion, that to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliberately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future. I would have preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony it would have involved, and my family unanimously urged me to do so. But the interest of the Nation must always come before any personal considerations. From the discussions I have had with Congressional and other leaders, I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of the Congress that I would consider necessary
to back the very difficult decisions and carry out the duties of this office in the way the interests of the Nation would require. I have never been a quitter. To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body. But as President, I must put the interest of America first. America needs a full-time President and a fulltime Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad. To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal vindication would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our entire focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home. Therefore, I shall resign the Presidency effective at noon tomorrow. Vice
President Ford will be sworn in as President at that hour in this office. Presidency of Gerald Ford Nixons resignation meant that Vice President Gerald Ford became the president. In 1974, President Ford faced a number of tough challenges. Perhaps none was as difficult as dealing with the nations persistent stagflation: both
inflation and unemployment rise at the same time, creating an economic nightmare. To deal with this hardship, Ford introduced WIN, which stood for Whip Inflation Now. Proclaiming inflation to be public enemy #1, Ford called on US citizens to save rather than spend, conserve fuel, and plant vegetable gardens. WIN relied on people voluntarily changing their behavior to deal with inflation.
As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment (after the resignation of Spiro Agnew), when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the only President of the United States who was never elected President or VicePresident. Presidency of Gerald Ford Asking people to wear WIN buttons, Ford
hoped to recreate the feeling of patriotism and sense of purpose that had motivated people to sacrifice during WWII. The program fell short, however, and faded away. Although an increase in unemployment benefits and a tax cut provided some relief, inflation and unemployment were still high entering the 1976 election.
Presidency of Jimmy Carter Still blamed by many for the nations economic problems, Ford barely survived the challenge from former California governor Ronald Reagan to win the Republican nomination. He then faced Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election. Formerly the governor of Georgia, Carter ran his
campaign as a Washington outsider who had not been corrupted by national politics. The strategy worked well so soon after Watergate and helped Carter defeat Ford in a relatively close election. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the
Democratic candidate. Ford was saddled with a slow economy and paid a political price for his pardon of Nixon. Carter ran as a Washington outsider and reformer and won a narrow victory. He was the first president elected from the Deep South since Zachary Taylor in 1848. No post-1976 Democratic candidate has managed to match or better Carter's electoral performance in the American South. Presidency of Jimmy Carter Under Jimmy Carter, dtente continued
as the US and USSR signed a treaty meant to further limit the production of nuclear arms (SALT II). In 1979, however, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The US condemned the invasion and USSoviet relations turned chilly once again. The Soviet invasion also killed any chance SALT II had of being ratified by the Senate. Presidency of Jimmy Carter
Carter also devoted much attention to the Middle East. For centuries, Arabs and Jews have fought bitterly over the region of Palestine. A new chapter in this conflict opened in 1948 after the United Nations formally recognized the Jewish state of Israel in the disputed territory. Jewish people welcomed the decision and felt that such a homeland was needed after the horrors of
the Holocaust. Arab nations, however, were furious! Presidency of Jimmy Carter As a result, many of the Arab nations and Israel fought a series of wars against each other. One of the countries that fought Israel was Egypt, which was widely viewed as the most powerful and influential Arab nation at the time.
In November 1977, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat shocked everyone when he flew to Israel to meet with that countrys Prime Minister, Menachem Begin. It was the first time any Arab leader had acknowledge Israel, much less visited the country. Presidency of Jimmy Carter Many in the Arab world hated Sadat for going to
Israel, but Sadat felt it was necessary for improving their relationship. Soon after, President Jimmy Carter invited the 2 leaders to Camp David (the presidents personal retreat) to continue their talks. Initially, the meetings proved to be unproductive. Through Carters efforts, however, both nations ended up signing the Camp David Accords on September 17, 1978. The agreement called for a peace treaty b/t the
2 nations and meant that Israel would withdraw from territories taken during the Yom Kippur War. A few years later, President Sadat was assassinated in Egypt, in part b/c of his work with Israel. Anwar Sadat-Egypt Jimmy Carter-US Menachem Begin-Israel
Meeting at Camp David After signing the Camp David Accords Presidency of Jimmy Carter Most viewed the Camp David Accords as a stroke of diplomatic genius by Carter. The following year, however, the Middle East went from being an area of great
accomplishment for the president to being his worst nightmare. For years, the US had enjoyed a good relationship with the Shah (leader) of Iran. Iran was an important ally b/c of its abundant oil supply and strategic location b/t the oil fields of Saudi Arabia and the dreaded Soviet Union. Presidency of Jimmy Carter In 1979, however, a revolution in Iran forced
the Shah to flee. In his place, a govt based on strict Muslim law and led by an Islamic cleric known as the Ayatollah Khomeini took over the country. When President Carter allowed the Shah to enter the US for medical treatment, an enraged Iranian mob invaded the US embassy in Tehran, Iran and took all those inside hostage.
In exchange for their release, the Iranians demanded that the US govt hand over the Shah to stand trial. Shah of Iran and his wife Ayatollah Khomeini 1979 Iranian Revolution Presidency of Jimmy Carter
The Iranian Hostage Crisis began on November 4, 1979, and lasted the remainder of Carters time in office. Carter refused to surrender the Shah and attempted diplomatic negotiations to win the hostages release. When this failed, he authorized an attempted military rescue 5 months into the crisis. The mission failed when bad weather caused a
military helicopter to collide with a transport plane, killing 8 US soldiers. The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two US citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamic students and militants took over the Embassy of the United States in support of the Iranian Revolution
A man holding a sign during a protest of the crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979. The sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country" on its forefront, and "Release all Americans now" on its back. Presidency of Jimmy Carter Later in 1980, after the death of the
Shah, the 2 sides finally reached an agreement and the Iranian govt released the hostages on January 21, 1981. That same day, Ronald Reagan became the new president. As one final act of defiance against Carter, the Iranians waited until Reagan officially took office before allowing the hostages to leave Iran.
Chapters 333-34 SSUSH 21 c; 25 c-g 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s Presidency of Ronald Reagan When Ronald Reagan entered office in 1981, he
introduced an economic plan that his critics quickly labeled Reaganomics. Reagan believed that the economy would be stimulated and would recover quickest if the supply of goods increased. Therefore, he backed policies and supported corporate tax cuts designed to benefit producers. His reasoning was often called the trickle
down theory b/c it advocated that the benefits felt by business owners would eventually trickle down to consumers. Presidency of Ronald Reagan When Reagan became president, he believed that 2 major things needed to happen. First, the size and role of the govt needed to decrease.
Second, the US military had to be built up and strengthened. This meant that at the same time Reagan was spending big bucks on the military, he was cutting taxes and decreasing govt regulation in certain areas. This contributed to a record national debt. The four pillars of Reagan's economic policy were to:
Reduce Growth of Government spending. Reduce Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax. Reduce Government regulation. Control the money supply to reduce inflation. Presidency of Ronald Reagan Unlike Nixon and his predecessors, Reagan believed that the USSR could not be trusted
and that they would stop short of nothing but worldwide domination. Reagan made headlines during his first term when he referred to the USSR as an evil empire. Reagan poured $1.5 trillion into the military and initiated SDI (the Strategic Defense Initiative), more commonly known as Star Wars (based on the 1977 film). With SDI, Reagan envisioned the development
of a satellite shield that could prevent Soviet missiles from ever reaching their target. Reagan knew the USSR could not economically afford to compete with such a program. Presidency of Ronald Reagan In 1985, a new leader named Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the USSR. Despite Reagans misgivings about the USSR, he
and Gorbachev struck up an unlikely friendship. In 1987, they signed the INF Treaty, which reduced the number of US and Soviet missiles in Europe. Gorbachev realized that the Soviet economy could not sustain an arms race with the US any longer. For this reason, he started a policy of glasnost (political openness) and perestroika (a restructuring of the economy to allow limited
free enterprise). Presidency of Ronald Reagan These changes, along with the collapse of Communist nations in Eastern Europe, paved the way for the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and its satellite nations. On one occasion, while speaking in West Berlin, President Reagan challenged the
Soviet leader publicly when he proclaimed before a crowd at the Berlin Wall, Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! Finally, on November 9, 1989, the East German govt announced that people could travel freely to West Berlin. Ronald Reagan speaks at the Berlin Wall's Brandenburg
Gate, challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!" Presidency of Ronald Reagan Germans flocked to the Berlin Wall and began tearing it down with sledgehammers and anything else they could find. The wall, and the iron curtain, had come down. Just a few years after the fall of the Berlin Wall,
the Soviet Union itself dissolved; it had survived 80 years! Although he was no longer in office at the time, many credited Reagan with bringing about the end of the Cold War. Presidency of Ronald Reagan From the time Castro came to power in the 1950s, the US was concerned about communism
spreading to Latin America. In the 1980s, this concern took root in Nicaragua. Nicaragua was ruled by a pro-Soviet govt known as the Sandinistas. To counter the Sandinistas, the US secretly provided training and support for Nicaraguan rebels known as the Contras. Congress cut off funding when it learned of these operations, claiming that such actions violated US neutrality laws.
Presidency of Ronald Reagan This led to what is known as the Iran- Contra Affair. Some of those in the Reagan administration decided to find other means by which to help the Contras. In exchange for securing the release of US hostages held in Lebanon, the US arranged to
secretly sell arms to Iran. The deal did little to win the release of hostages, and when it became public it created the biggest scandal in govt since Watergate. In the end, Marine Colonel Oliver North, took most of the blame. Presidency of Ronald Reagan Testifying on national television in his Marine
Corps uniform, North came off looking like a hero to many citizens who viewed him as a brave soldier in the fight against communism. Meanwhile, Reagan claimed that he had no knowledge of the arrangement, and no evidence was ever produced that he did. After 2 terms in office, Reagan left office in 1989. While many people criticized Reagan for the high debt and Iran-Contra scandal, others believed him to be one of the greatest
presidents in US history. The scandal was composed of arms sales to Iran in violation of the official US policy of an arms embargo against Iran, and of using funds thus generated to arm and train the Contra militants based in Honduras as they waged a guerilla war to topple the government of Nicaragua.
The Presidency of George HW Bush After serving 8 years as Reagans Vice President, George HW Bush became the new president. He was in office when the Berlin Wall came down and when the Soviet Union finally collapsed. He also acted as the commander-in-chief over the nations military during the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Bush worked through the United Nations to coordinate
an alliance b/t 28 countries that took military action against Iraq after Saddam Hussein refused to withdraw his troops from Kuwait back to Iraq. The war lasted only 42 days and resulted in the liberation of Kuwait. What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea a new world order, where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law. --George H.W. Bush
The Persian Gulf War (August 2, 1990 February 28, 1991), commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations led by the United States, against Iraq. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
The Presidency of George HW Bush After the Gulf War, Bushs popularity soared. Citizens cheered him as a leader who had stood up to tyranny and led the nation to a great victory. By the time of the 1992 election, however, things had drastically changed. The presidents foreign policy success was quickly forgotten as the economy took a downturn. The Democrats successfully portrayed Bush as not
only responsible for the economic difficulties, but also as being out of touch with the struggles of common citizens. The Presidency of Bill Clinton The presidential election of 1992 was one of the most memorable in history. The Republicans put their hopes in George HW Bush, while the Democrats nominated Bill
Clinton. Clinton had served for years as governor of Arkansas. Although he was not well known before 1992, Clinton ran a calculated campaign which emphasized the nations economic challenges and portrayed Bush as being incapable of recognizing or dealing with the problems of the nation. Bill Clinton with Ross Perot, Independent, and
President George H. W. Bush, Republican, in a national debate First inauguration of Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993) The Presidency of Bill Clinton What made the 1992 election so different, however, was
not the Democratic and Republican candidates, but rather its formidable independent candidate, H. Ross Perot. Because of the discontent many felt with the federal govt and the two major parties, Ross Perot gained a great deal of national support. Perot dropped out of the race unexpectedly, only to change his mind and re-enter again. Perots odd behavior cost him the loyalty of many of his supporters and his campaign never regained its earlier
momentum. It did, however, pull away some support from President Bush. In 1992, Democrats recaptured the White House for the first time since 1980 when Bill Clinton won with less than 50% of the popular vote. The Presidency of Bill Clinton Under Clinton, the US ratified NAFTA (The North American Free Trade Agreement).
NAFTA promoted free trade (no trade restrictions) b/t the US, Canada, and Mexico, and caused considerable controversy in the US. Many labor unions feared the agreement would encourage US businesses to relocate to Mexico where they would face fewer restrictions and be able to pay lower wages. Supporters of NAFTA argued it would create jobs in the US by increasing foreign markets for US businesses.
The goal of NAFTA was to eliminate barriers of trade and investment between the US, Canada and Mexico. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1, 1994, brought the immediate elimination of tariffs on more than one half of U.S. imports from Mexico and more than one third of U.S. exports to Mexico. Within 10 years of the implementation of the agreement, all US-Mexico tariffs would be eliminated except for some U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico that were to be phased out in 15 years. Most US-Canada trade was already duty free. NAFTA also seeks to eliminate non-tariff trade barriers.
The Presidency of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton is acknowledged by many to have been a brilliant politician and effective president. His legacy is forever attached, however, to a series of scandals. As early as his first presidential campaign, Clintons hopes of being president were nearly derailed by accusations of an extra-marital affair.
He also had to deal with charges that he had used questionable means to avoid the draft during Vietnam. During his first term, Clinton was accused of taking part in fraudulent business practices in Arkansas and using his influences as governor to cover them up. The Presidency of Bill Clinton This came to be known as the
Whitewater Affair. It also involved accusations against his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, and her former law firm. Although some associates were convicted of crimes, the president and first lady were never linked to any wrongdoing. The final scandal to hit the Clinton White House was by far the biggest.
The Presidency of Bill Clinton A young woman named Paula Jones accused Clinton of sexual harassment before he became president. During the investigation, Clinton was also asked about the nature of his relationship with a White House intern named Monica Lewinsky. Under oath, before a grand jury, the president
denied having a sexual relationship with her. As more evidence came out, it became apparent that Clinton had lied. On December 19, 1998, the House voted to impeach President Bill Clinton for lying to a grand jury. Clintons presidency survived after he was acquitted by the Senate, but the scandal remained. Paula Corbin Jones is a former
Arkansas state employee who sued U.S. President Bill Clinton for sexual harassment. The lawsuit was dismissed before trial on the grounds that Jones failed to demonstrate any damages. However, while the dismissal was being appealed, Clinton entered into an out-of-court settlement by agreeing to pay Jones $79,999. The Paula Jones case precipitated Bill
Clinton's impeachment. Charges of perjury and obstruction of justice charges were brought based on statements he made during the depositions for the Paula Jones lawsuit. The specific statements were about the nature of his relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky, with whom he denied having a sexual relationship.
The Presidency of George W Bush Decided by a mere 537 votes in the state of Florida, the election of 2000 is to date the closest election in US history, and one of the few in which the winner in the Electoral College failed to win the popular vote. The Democratic candidate for president was Vice President Al Gore.
Although the economy had done well under the Clinton-Gore administration, Gore found it necessary to distance himself from Clinton due to the scandals associated with him. The Presidency of George W Bush The Republican candidate was George W Bush, Texas governor and oldest son of former President George HW Bush.
On election night, the main question was: who would win Florida? Florida had 25 electoral votes and all of them would go to whichever candidate got the most votes in that state. Early on, the media reported that Gore had won based on exit polls. A few hours later, media reported that Bush had won the state and therefore he had won the election.
The Presidency of George W Bush With votes still coming in Gore conceded the election to Bush, but when he found out that they were so close, Gore took back his concession. What followed was a month of debate! On December 12, 2000, the US Supreme Court voted 5-4 to stop any future recounts.
Gore finally conceded the election and Bush became the 43rd president of the US. The Presidency of George W Bush In recent years, the alliance b/t the US and Israel has been one of the factors towards making the US a major target of Islamic terrorists (criminals who destroy property and kill innocent civilians in the name of a political or social cause).
These terrorists subscribe to a radical form of Islam which advocates violence to overthrow the US and other western nations. The most formidable and best known Islamic terrorist group is Al-Qaeda. At the head of Al-Qaeda was a radical Muslim named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden and his terrorist organization have their roots in Afghanistan.
The origins of al-Qaeda as a network inspiring terrorism around the world and training operatives can be traced to the Soviet War in Afghanistan (December 1979 February 1989). Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia Map of recent major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda: 1. The Pentagon, US Sept 11, 2001
2. World Trade Center, US Sept 11, 2001 3. Istanbul, Turkey Nov 15, 2003; Nov 20, 2003 4. Aden, Yemen Oct 12, 2000 5. Nairobi, Kenya Aug 7, 1998 6. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Aug 7, 1998 The Presidency of George W Bush Life in the US was forever changed on September 11, 2001.
That morning, people across the nation watched in shock as terrorists flew hijacked commercial airliners into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The attack killed thousands as the Twin Towers came crashing down, and the Pentagon burst into flames. Meanwhile, another hijacked plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania, killing everyone on board.
On December 27, 2001, an Osama bin Laden video was released. In the video, he states, "Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people", but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks. --Osama bin Laden
The Presidency of George W Bush It went down when the passengers revolted and prevented the airliner from reaching its intended target. The 9/11 attacks brought the reality of terrorism home to the US and shook many peoples sense of national security more than any event since the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
President Bush had not quite been in office 8 months on September 11, 2001. People were anxious to see what kind of leader he would be and what kind of response the US would have to the terrorist attacks. The Presidency of George W Bush Bush responded by declaring a war on terror. He created a new govt department, the
Department of Homeland Security, for the purpose of preparing and protecting the nation against future terrorist attacks. Among other things, it greatly increased airline security to prevent future hijackings. Bush also signed the US PATRIOT Act, which increased the authority of US law enforcement agencies and allowed them greater latitude in what measures they used to obtain information.
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The Presidency of George W Bush Having confirmed that Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda
were responsible for the 9/11 attacks, Bush set about forming an international coalition of nations to take military and diplomatic action. The govt knew that Bin Laden was in Afghanistan, enjoying the protection of the Taliban govt. When the US insisted that the Taliban turn in Bin Laden, they refused. In October 2001, the US launched Operation
Enduring Freedom, with the help of many other nations. The Presidency of George W Bush It was designed to destroy the Taliban and Al- Qaeda and bring Bin Laden to justice. Within weeks, the invasion got rid of the Taliban and limited the actions of Al-Qaeda. As part of the war on terror, Bush felt that the
US could not simply sit back and defend against future attacks. He believed the US should be pro-active and strike first. In 2003, this policy resulted in the US leading an international coalition of forces in an invasion of Iraq. The Presidency of George W Bush The US led coalition launched the War in Iraq
based on intelligence from several nations suggesting that Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, had ties to Al-Qaeda and that he possessed weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear and chemical weapons. Successes in Iraq include the formation of a new democratic govt, a new constitution, building projects, and greater opportunities for women. However, the new govt remains unstable and
terrorist insurgents and religious factions within the country continue to keep the nation in violence.