Unit 1: Matter & Change

Unit 1: Matter & Change

Unit 1: Matter & Change or is anything that has mass and takes up space Elements

Classification of Matter Matter Pure Substances Compounds anything composed of atoms

Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous Mixtures Pure Substances Element: one of the 109 pure

substances that cannot be separated by chemical change or physical change. Examples: gold (Au), hydrogen(H), potassium (K) Represented by a symbol on the periodic table. Compound made from atoms that are chemically

bonded together. Can be separated by chemical change, but not physical means. Examples: H2O (water), CO2(carbon dioxide), NaCl (sodium chloride) Represented by a formula.

Separation of Compounds: Molecules can be divided into atoms of the elements that make them up, but only through a chemical change. In electrolysis (for example), the bonds of H2O are broken and the two gases, oxygen and hydrogen, are no longer connected to one another. The indicator in this reaction is the formation of gas bubbles. The physical and chemical properties of these two elements are completely different than the properties

of water!!! Mixtures Mixture: Two or more pure substances that are combined, and can be separated by physical means. Mixtures Homogeneous Mixture: two or more pure

substances mixed evenly. When you look at it, you cant see separate parts. Also called solutions Examples: salt water, soda, coffee Lemonade is made of sugar, lemons, and water, but combined looks like only one substance! Mixtures Alloy a homogeneous mixture made by

melting two or more elements together, at least one of them a metal. Example: brass, steel, 14k gold Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture: two or more pure substances mixed unevenly (you can see the different components). Example: fruit salad, pizza, granite Can be separated through filtering

Suspensions Heterogeneous mixture A suspension has large particles that will stay mixed up (or suspended) for as long as the mixture is in motion Once the motion stops, the particles will fall to the bottom or settle out can be separated through filtering

Ex: sand water, Italian salad dressing Colloids Somewhere between a solution and suspension Heterogeneous mixtures where the medium sized particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out.

Appear cloudy and opaque Cannot be separated by filtering Ex: milk, fog, blood, jello How can light be used to tell the difference between colloids and solutions? Tyndall effect A beam of light passing through a solution, such as air,

is not visible. (shows no light in a true solution) Light passing through a colloid, such as fog, will be scattered by the larger particles, and the light beam will be visible. True solution: yellow Colloid: Red jello

How can mixtures be separated? Remember, mixtures can only be separated physically. Evaporation-Used to separate a dissolved solute from a solution. Magnetic Separation-Used to

separate particles based on magnetic properties. Sieving-Used to separate particles of different sizes by passing through a mesh or net Filtration Separates heterogeneous mixtures: used to separate a solid

from a liquid. The liquid (and anything dissolved in the liquid) passes through holes in the filter paper, but the solid particles are too big and get stuck. Example: using a filter to separate dirt from water Decanting The separation of mixtures leaving sediments

in the bottom of the original container The liquid is poured into a new container without disturbing the sediment or lower liquid layers. Centrifugation Separating liquids of different densities or solids from liquids by the application of centrifugal force (the more dense substance will go to the bottom)

Example: separating blood into plasma and blood cells Distillation Used for separating homogeneous mixtures of liquids by their physical properties of boiling point. The liquid with the lower boiling point boils out and is collected in the collection flask. The liquid with the higher boiling point is left in the original flask.

Example: ethanol (ethyl alcohol) can be separated from water by distillation because ethanol has a lower boiling point than water Chromatography Used to separate a mixture on the basis of differences in their affinity for a stationary and a mobile phase Example: separating components of ink using

paper (stationary phase) and water (mobile phase) Crystallization A solid-liquid separation technique through the formation of solid crystals from a homogeneous solution Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes of Matter

All Matter has Properties A physical property can be observed without a chemical change occurring. A chemical property can be observed only when a chemical change occurs How many can you remember?

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Color Shape Texture Viscosity Buoyancy Mass

Volume Weight Density (mass/volume) Flammability

Ability to rust Reactivity Enthalpy of formation Physical & Chemical Changes Physical A ___________ change is one that does not result in the production of a new substance.

You can often undo these changes. Physical & Chemical Changes Chemical A ___________ change is one that results in the production of another substance and is often seen as a change in color, odor, temperature, or the production of gas

bubbles. You cannot undo these changes. Physical Change in the Water Cycle Physical vs. Chemical Changes Examples of Chemical Changes: Burning Rusting Decaying

Digestion Four indicators of a chemical change 1. Energy Change heat or light is produced, or a decrease in temperature. Exothermic gives off heat, feels hot Endothermic takes in heat, feels cold.

Four indicators of a chemical change 2. Production of a gas (you see bubbles or fizzing) Four indicators of a chemical change 3. Precipitate a solid is formed when two liquids are mixed together. The indicator that a

precipitate has formed is that the liquid turns cloudy. Four indicators of a chemical change 4. Color change (usually happens) Think of digestion which is a chemical change Rock Cycle

The rock cycle has both physical and chemical changes occurring. Physical: rocks are weathered by wind and water, but the small pieces of rock have not changed composition. Chemical: acid rain can react with limestone, changing the chemical composition of the rock. Rock Cycle

Digestion The digestion of food is an example of both a physical change and a chemical change. 1st you chew, creating smaller pieces physical change 2nd your saliva has an enzyme (amylase) that breaks down starch chemical change 3rd an enzyme, pepsin, (found in the stomach) breaks down protein, bile (sm. intestine) acts on

fat chemical change Measurable Properties Extensive Property a measurable property of a sample of matter that depends on how much of the matter is being considered. Examples: mass, volume Intensive Property a measurable property of a sample of matter that does not depend on how much

of the matter is being considered. Examples: Density Density depends on two things: 1. How tightly packed the atoms are 2. What kind of atoms they are If the black dots are atoms, which box represents the substance with the greatest density? Useful Density Information

Density of water = 1 g/mL Objects with a density greater than 1 g/mL sink in water Objects with a density less than 1 g/mL float in water Teacher Demo with Paper When your teacher cut the piece of paper in half, what happened to the mass of the paper? When your teacher cut the piece of paper in half, what happened to the volume of the paper? If the original mass of the paper was 8.0 g and the original volume was 2.5 cm 3, what was the original density of

the paper? (Show your work) Assuming the information given above is correct, what would the NEW density be for just one half of the original piece of paper? (Show your work) When your teacher doubled the amount of water in the beaker, what happened to its mass? When your teacher doubled the amount of water in the beaker, what happened to its volume If the original mass of the water was 150.0 g and the original volume was 150 mL, what was the original density of the water? (Show your work) Assuming the information given above is correct, what would the NEW density be for double the original amount of water? (Show your work)

Density is calculated with the formula: Find it! Density CalculationsWhat do you do? G ivenwhat do you know? Write it down. U nknownwhat are you looking for? x = ? E quationwhich one are you going to use? S ubstitutesubstitute in the correct values with units. S olvework the problem with your calculator.

**Dont forget to your answer with the correct number of sig figs and correct units. Lets Practice! 1. What is the density of a piece of wood that has a mass of 35.99 g and a volume of 45.68 cm3? 2. A metal cylinder is placed into a graduated cylinder with 24.0 mL of water. After the cylinder is added, the volume of water rises to 30.4 mL. The density of the cylinder is known

to be 8.9 g/mL. What is the mass of the cylinder? Kinetic Molecular Theory Atoms and molecules are constantly moving, and we measure the energy of these movements as the temperature of the substance. The more energy a substance has, the more molecular movement there will be, and the higher the perceived temperature will be.

States of Matter There are three states (also called phases) of matter. The picture represents the same chemical substance, just in different states.

There are three states (also called phases) of matter. Solid Matter that has both a definite shape and definite volume. Molecules or atoms are very close together and can only vibrate a little.

They do not move past each other. There are three states (also called phases) of matter. Liquid: Matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape. Molecules or atoms are

close together. Have the ability to slide across one another very easily. There are three states (also called phases) of matter. Gas: Matter that has no fixed volume or shape.

It conforms to the volume and shape of its container. Its molecules or atoms are very far apart from each other and move very fast. Density Comparison If you consider the solid,

liquid, and gas state of one particular substance, this rule holds true in most cases: Solid is more dense than liquid Liquid is more dense than gas Water is Weird

A notable exception is water! The solid state of H2O, ice, is less dense than liquid water. This is why ice floats. This is true because of the way hydrogen bonds form when liquid water freezes. The hexagonal pattern results in empty space between the molecules. CORE Concept Melting

Condensation Vaporization Freezing Sublimation Deposition

CORE Concept Write an example Write the definition Condensation Vaporization Freezing

Sublimation Deposition Phase Changes That Require Energy (increase in temperature, endothermic) Melting: solid liquid Ex: ice melting to liquid water

Vaporization: liquid gas Ex: heating water on the stove, steam is released. Sublimation: solid directly to gas Ex: dry ice (solid CO2) lets off CO2 gas, looks like steam; solid air fresheners. Phase Changes that Release Energy

(decrease in temperature, exothermic) Condensation: gas liquid Ex: sweat collects on a cold glass of ice water. Freezing: liquid solid Ex: water freezing into ice. Deposition: gas directly to solid Ex: frost forms on the grass on a cold morning, snowflakes form from water vapor in clouds.

Phase Changes That Require Energy (increase in temperature) Condensation Vaporization Freezing

Sublimation Deposition Exothermic Melting Phase Changes that Release Energy (decrease in temperature)

Endothermic CORE Concept

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