Unit 04 - Ms. Roderick's Forensic Science

Unit 04 - Ms. Roderick's Forensic Science

Write Unit 04 Fingerprints! Listen Write Vocabulary Dactyloscopy (Finger)

(To look at) The analysis and study of fingerprints. Listen Write What are Fingerprints? Listen

Cross-Section of Skin bsapp.com Friction Ridge Draw Epidermis Papillary Layer

Dermis Hypodermis Vocabulary Epidermis Top layer of skin Dermis Middle layer of skin Hypodermis Deep layer of Skin

Papillary Layer Ridged layer between dermis and epidermis Friction Ridge Ridges found on your fingertips Help you grip objects Created by the papillary layer of the dermis Write Listen Sebaceous

Gland Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 9 Write Vocabulary Fingerprint An impression of the friction ridges of a finger Created by oil, dirt, and water/sweat

Watch Where do Fingerprints Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qX6hFXHDmk4 Why are fingerprints unique? Fingerprints develop in the womb Pressure of amniotic fluid Creates Papillary Layer Identical twins have different fingerprint

Fingerprints are finished by the 24th week of development. Write Write Principles of Fingerprints First Principle: A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two fingers have yet been found to posses identical ridge characteristics.

bsapp.com Write Principles of Fingerprints Second Principle: A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime. bsapp.com Write

Principles of Fingerprints Third Principle: Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified. bsapp.com Write Characteristics of Fingerprints Listen

There are 3 general fingerprint distinctions: Arch Whorl Loop 17 Read and Follow

Directions Outline your hands on a piece of paper Look at your fingers Try to identify if you have an arch, loop, or whorl for each finger. Write what you have on your piece of paper. Listen Core Delta Listen

Ridge Count Write Vocabulary Core the center of the major pattern Delta a triangle shape Ridge Count the number of ridges on the fingerprint

Write Arch 5% of population Arch Friction Ridges run across finger while rising up in the middle. They do NOT have, deltas or cores. 22 Write and Draw

Arches Spike or tent Plain Arch Ridges enter on one side and exit on the other side. Tented Arches Similar to the plain arch, but has a spike in the center.

Write and Draw Loop 65% of population A loop must have one or more ridges entering and exiting from the same side. Loops have a core and one delta. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 ; Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. 24

Write and Draw Loops These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius Write and draw and ulna bones. Delta Ulnar Loop (Right hand) Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone

(pinky finger). Radial Loop (Right hand) Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone (thumb). NOTE: On the left hand, a loop that opens to the left would be an ulnar loop, while one that opens to the right would be a radial loop. Write and Draw Whorl 30% of population

A plain or central pocket whorl has at least one ridge that makes a complete circuit. There is a core and two deltas Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 ; Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. 26 Whorls Write and Draw

If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental. Plain Whorl Central Pocket Whorl Draw a line between the two deltas in the plain and central pocket whorls. If some of the curved ridges touch the line, it is a plain whorl. If none of the center core touches the line, it is a central

pocket whorl. Write and Draw Whorls Part 2 Accidental Whorl Double Loop Whorl Delta Delta Double loop whorls are made up of any two loops

combined into one print. Accidental whorls contain two or more patterns (not including the plain arch), or does not clearly fall under any of the other categories. Write and Draw

Ridgeology Ridgeology: The study of the uniqueness of friction ridge structures and their use for personal identification.1 Ridge Characteristics/Minutiae: created by friction ridges. Small unique structures koala is one of the few mammals (other than primates) that Did youThe know? has fingerprints. In fact, koala fingerprints are remarkably similar to human fingerprints; even with an electron microscope,

it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the two. Introduction to Basic Ridgeology by David Ashbaugh, May 1999 1 Image from http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/~irena/minutia.gif Ridge Characteristics Listen Use these characteristics as points of identification when comparing fingerprint samples. The more points you can find in common, the better the match!

Listen Fingerprint Minutiae- characteristics of ridge patterns Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 31 Listen

Ridge Characteristics EX E L P AM Crossover Core Bifurcation (fork) Ridge ending

Scar Island Delta Pore http://cnx.org/content/m12574/latest/properties.jpg Watch How to Roll Prints Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7N-4UNAzsw Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations,

Chapter 6 33 Directions Thumb = towards body Fingers = away from body Read and Follow 1st Roll the pad portion of your thumb over the ink pad from the left side of your thumb to the

right. You do not have to push down really hard! 2nd Roll the pad portion of your thumb from the left side of your thumb to the right in the correct box on your paper to make a thumbprint. 3rd Continue this process to make a fingerprint of all ten fingers on the 10 card 4th Use your notes and a magnifying lens to help you figure out what type of pattern is found in each of your fingerprints. Label each one with the patterns name. Write Fingerprint Identification

Points of identification/similarity: When minutiae on two different prints match There is no international standard for the number of points of identification required for a match between two fingerprints. Individual Country Standards: United Kingdom: min. 16 Australia: min.12 United States: no legal requirement, but 8-12 is generally accepted. Listen AFIS

The Automated Fingerprint Identification System - a computer system for storing and retrieving fingerprints Began in the early 1970s to: Search large files for a set of prints taken from an individual Compare a single print, usually a latent print developed from a crime scene By the 1990s most large jurisdictions had their own system in place. The problem - a persons fingerprints may be in one AFIS but not in others IAFISthe FBIs Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System which is a national database of all 10-print cards from all over

the country 36 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company Write AFIS AFIS: The Automated Fingerprint Identification System - a computer system for storing and retrieving fingerprints IAFISthe FBIs Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System which is a national database of all 10print cards from all over the country

37 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company Listen Patent Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 38 Listen

Plastic Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 39 Listen Latent Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations,

Chapter 6 40 Write Types of Fingerprints There are 3 types of prints that investigators look for at crime scenes: 1. Patent fingerprints are visible prints transferred onto smooth surfaces by blood or other liquids. 2. Plastic fingerprints are indentations left in soft

materials such as clay or wax. 3. Latent fingerprints are not visible but made so by dusting with powders or the use of chemicals. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 41 Listen Sebaceous Gland

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 42 Latent Prints Write Fingerprints are made from secretions. Most secretions come from three glands:

Eccrinelargely water with both inorganic (ammonia, chlorides, metal ions, phosphates) and organic compounds (amino acids, lactic acids, urea, sugars). Most important for fingerprints. Apocrinesecrete pheromones and other organic materials. Sebaceoussecrete fatty or greasy 43 Listen

Developing Latent Prints Developing a print requires substances that interact with secretions that cause the print to stand out against its background. It may be necessary to attempt more than one technique, done in a particular order so as not to destroy the print. Powdersadhere to both water and fatty deposits. Choose a color to contrast the background. Iodinefumes react with oils and fats to produce a temporary yellow brown reaction. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

44 Write Developing Latent Prints Chemical Reacts with Color Ninhydrin

Amino Acids Purple Silver Nitrate Chloride Grey Cyanoacrylate Water

White Iodine Fats Brown Other Tools: Lasers Light Sources Black light

Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 45 Listen Ninhydrin Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 46

Silver Nitrate Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 Listen 47 Cyanoacrylate Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6

Listen 48 Listen Cyanoacrylate Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 49

Listen Iodine Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 50 Write Fingerprint Forensic FAQs Can fingerprints be erased?

No, if, for example, they are removed with chemicals, they will grow back. Is fingerprint identification reliable? Yes, but analysts can make mistakes. Is fingerprint matching carried out by computers in a matter of seconds? No, but the FBIs Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS or AFIS) can provide a match in 2 hours for the prints in its Master File. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6

51 Listen Other Prints Earsshape, length and width Voiceelectronic pulses measured on a spectrograph Footsize of foot and toes; friction ridges on the foot Shoescan be compared and identified by type of shoe, brand, size, year of purchase, and wear pattern. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

52 Listen Other Prints Palmfriction ridges can be identified and may be used against suspects. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 53

Listen Other Prints Footprints are taken at birth as a means of identification of infants. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 54 Listen

Other Prints Lipsdisplay several common patterns Short vertical lines Short horizontal lines Crosshatching Branching grooves Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 55

Listen Other Prints Teethbite marks are unique and can be used to identify suspects. These imprints were placed in gum and could be matched to crime scene evidence. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

56 Listen Other Prints The blood vessel patterns in the eye may be unique to individuals. They are used today for various security purposes.

Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 57 Listen Biometrics Use of some type of body metrics for the purpose of identification. (The Bertillon system may actually have been the first biometry system.) Used today in conjunction with AFIS Examples include retinal or iris patterns, voice recognition, hand

geometry Other functions for biometricscan be used to control entry or access to computers or other structures; can identify a person for security purposes; can help prevent identity theft or control social services fraud. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 58 Listen The Future of Fingerprinting New scanning technologies and digitally identifying

patterns may eliminate analytical mistakes. Trace elements of objects that have been touched are being studied to help with the identification of individuals. To help with identification, other physical features such as eyes and facial patterns are also being studied. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 6 59

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