UN - Peace and conflict studies

UN - Peace and conflict studies

UN Department of Field Support Established-2007 World Peace and the UN This Endeavour depends upon a coalition of will and action on the part of multiple actors: the Security Council - in terms of setting mandates. the Member States in their commitment of personnel, financial and material resources. the host countries, and their consent and cooperation. the Secretariat and its own ability to stand up, support and sustain operations.

Why Dept of Field Support DFS for mobilization all human, material and support services necessary to ensure that UN field missions are largely self-sufficient and can succeed under a wide range of post-conflict conditions. Typical field environment are harsh, dangerous, sometimes openly hostile to a UN presence. Support and sustainment for long would be subjected to frequent and extended natural and man-made disruptions. Local markets for goods and services are limited or non-existent, and the rule of law can be fragile or absent all together. Potable water is scarce and in high demand, fresh food can be difficult to procure in quantity, housing stock is frequently in short supply, and reliable communications infrastructure is lacking.

Challenges In 2010 alone, DFS provided logistics, administrative and information and communications technology support for 32 peacekeeping and fieldbased special political missions. (139,000 pers) Supporting pko means, supporting twice the number of deployed uniformed personnel on an annual basis due to constant rate of troop and police rotations. When a new mission is mandated, there is a political opportunity in terms of agreement both by UN and host nation. Delay to start may be an opportunity lost. In addition, in old missions it is difficult to retain talented staff. DFS The Department of Field Support (DFS) provides dedicated support to peacekeeping field missions and political field missions. USG

Field Personnel Division. Field Budget and Finance Division UN Logistics Base in Brindisi (UNLB). Logistics Support Division

Policy Evaluation and Training (PET) Division Information & Communications Technology Division What is included inField Support ? Rations, air transport, vehicles, Comn and info technology , med equipments, accomodations to move people around in places where there are almost no roads

or infrastructure. UN field operations require a complex mission support system. DFS integrates logistical support assets from a range of sources: - Civilian assets owned and managed by the UN -Member States -Military and formed police units -Commercially contracted assets. UN provides: - Aviation, cargo and passenger movement, and medical facilities for the whole of a mission. - Fuel, water, accommodation and rations for contingents. - Office and equipment, vehicles, utilities, communications and information technology for Military Observers, Staff Officers, UN Police and civilian staffs.

Field support. Member states (troop and police contributing countries (TCC/PCC) provide: -Major equipment and self-sustainment capabilities including vehicles, generators; -Catering, laundry, internet, organic medical and engineering. The logistics support and service provided by a TCC/PCC varies. The details are agreed as part of the MOU that is signed by the TCC/PCC and the UN. Contracted items: Additional equipments and services like cleaning, maintenance and security services are contracted commercially. Field Support Strategy The Global Field Support Strategy (A/64/633) is a project to transform the delivery of support to UN field missions to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of services. It consists of four pillars:

Financial framework: Prepare a budget. Modularization : Goods and transportation are calculated on module. Service centers: There are pre determined places where the goods are located and troops are on stand-by arrangements. Human resources framework: UN maintains a roster of officials both the old and new; they are contacted if they are still available. Budget Budget is calculated by aligning resources to achieve the overall objectives of the mission. Budget is mission specific. Budget includes operational costs (transport and logistics) and staff costs (salaries). The PKO budget cycle (1 July to 30 June) budgets are prepared for 12 months. Procedure: SG submits budget proposal through ACABQ to GAs Fifth

Committee and it is endorsed by the GA. Every f/y, each PKO mission prepares and submits a performance report which shows the actual use of resources. This report is also considered and approved by the GA. Reimbursement to TCC Member States provide, on a voluntary basis, the military and police personnel. TCC are reimbursed by the UN at a flat rate of a little over US$1,028 per soldier per month, (approved by the GA in 2002). Police and other civilian personnel are paid from the peacekeeping budgets established for each operation. The UN reimburses Member States for providing equipment, personnel and support services to military or police contingents.

Must read GA and SC resolutions. Logistics of Reimbursement Over 114 UN member states contribute more than 114,000 military personnel in formed units and approx 14,000 individual and formed unit police to serve in 18 PKO around the world. Troops and police units arrive in the mission area with their own equipment and self sustainment capabilities, ready to operate in challenging conditions. Budget-7.6 bln in 2011. GA Resolution 50/222 (1996) GA authorizes the procedures (A/RES/20/222). MOU is signed between the UN and the TCC/PCC (formed military or police unit.) The Contingent Owned Equipment (COE) system was adopted by the UN to simplify the means by which countries are reimbursed for providing equipment, personnel and self-sustainment support services.

Binding agreement of the COE system is the MOU, (procedures) Rates of reimbursement are reviewed every three years by a COE Working Gp, (extension of the GA). MOU Negotiated formal agreement - UN and the TCC /PCC. It establishes the responsibility and standards for the provision and reimbursement rates of personnel, major equipment and self-sustainment support services for both the UN and the TCC/ PCC. MOU is signed by UNs DFS and PR to the UN of the TCC/PCC and remains in force until the end of the mandate of the PKO or TCC/PCC withdraws its force. Disputes regarding implementation of MOU is settled by the ICJ. Mostly disputes are resolved at the mission area itself. Standard rates have been predetermined by Member States. TCCs are reimbursed

equally for providing the same generic types of personnel and equipments. Self-sustainment services are reimbursed by the UN on a per person/per month basis, payable from UN Headquarters (UNHQ) directly to the TCC. Responsibilities: Contingent Arrive with serviceable equipment that reflects the requirements of the MOU. Report and rectify deficiencies through national channels (at national expense). Assist mission staff in conducting inspections and raising Verification and other reports. Provide personnel, equipment and self sustainment services in accordance with their responsibilities under the terms of the MOU.

UNHQ Receive, track and review VR. Report / clarify contingent deficiencies back to mission. Report mission shortfalls to responsible UN operational and logistics parties. Determine levels of reimbursement - mission strength / shortfalls and recommendations. Disburse reimbursements to contributing countries. Reimbursement Process After deployed, COE staff in the field commence Verification Inspections as mentioned in the MOU. Verification Report (VR) is raised and signed by the Peacekeeping missions FC/PC, the CAO Officer and the CC. VR is sent to UNHQ. At UNHQ, the VR is reviewed against the MOU and the appropriate reimbursement is calculated and dispersed to the contributing country.

No MOU, No reimbursement. Reimbursements are calculated on quarterly basis and paid in March, June, September and December each year. Conclusion Logistical support for UN mission is difficult and volume is large. UN missions are in remote, inhospitable terrain, hostile environment and no market. It was difficult for the DPKO to handle both the ops and logistics. Although under the DPKO, DFS was created to exclusively handle the logistics. Missions have troops and police who are deployed under two systems: Self sustained and UN supported. TCC/PCC and the UN sign an agreement which is called MOU. Reimbursement is made to the TCC/PCC as underlined in the MOU.

To be reimbursed the TCC/PCC, in the field, have to prove that they have met the MOU requirements. Cost of Peacekeeping Budget for UN PKO for the f/y (1 July 2012-30 June 2013 ) is about $7.33 bn (A/C.5/66/18) (It is less than half of one per cent of world military expenditures ($1,738 billion in 2011). The top 10 contributors in UNPKO for 2013-2015 (A/67/224) are: United States (27.14%) Japan (12.53%) United Kingdom (8.15%) Germany

(8.02%) France (7.55%) Italy (5.00%) China (3.93%) Canada (3.21%) Spain (3.18%) Republic of Korea (2.26%)

Some countries voluntarily contribute to support UN PKO efforts on a nonreimbursable basis in the form of transportation, supplies, personnel and financial contributions above and beyond their assessed share of peacekeeping costs. Payment of peacekeeping assessments is mandatory, as of 31 March 2013, Member States owed approximately $2.27 billion in current and back peacekeeping dues.

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