Colonial Government Settlers in South Carolina Proprietary Government Colonists never officially adopted the Fundamental Constitutions. Many of the ideas from the document were used when governing the colony. The proprietors appointed deputies to govern the colony. The proprietors never stepped foot into the colony. Each deputy represented one proprietor for a total of 8. All 8 deputies served on the Grand Council. Grand Council created to make laws and serve as the colonys court. Included at least 35 local nobles and five elected representatives. The highest ranking deputy on the council was the proprietary governor. A parliament was created to approve or reject laws proposed by the
Grand Council. All members of the Grand Council served in parliament. 15 elected representatives of the people served as well. Proprietary Government Government Changes The Grand Council changed its name to the Council in 1692. Members only appointed by the proprietors. Commons House of Assembly was created to replaced parliament. The assembly could propose laws. Over time it would become one of the most powerful legislative bodies in the colonies. Unstable Government Factions (people who disagree with the govt.) occur. Goose Creek Men.
Men who came from Barbados and settled along the Goose Creek near Charleston. They were Anglicans (members of the Church of England.) Wealthy men. Most had made money in the Indian slave trade and doing business with pirates. One reason they opposed the Lords Proprietors was because they controlled profitable Indian trade. Goose Creek, SC Unstable Government The other faction-Dissenters or Non Anglican Church members. Came from all over Europe to enjoy religious freedom. Supported the Lords Proprietors against the Goose Creek Men for a long time. Quit supporting the Lords Proprietors when they joined forces with the Goose Creek Men to promote the Church of England.
Dissenters upset in reaction to Assembly passing laws created to weaken them. First law excluded Dissenters from membership in the assembly. Second law established the Church of England as the official church of the colony. Church Act (1706) Created after English Parliament overturns laws passed to weaken the Dissenters. Confirmed the Church of England as the official church of the colony. Did not exclude Dissenters from membership in the assembly. Unstable Government Church Act (1706) Divided the colony into 10 parishes. Each parish served as an election district. Official records such as births, marriages and deaths
were kept at each parish. Tax money was used to pay the salaries of parish clergy as well as for building and maintaining parish churches. Parish concept came from Barbados and inspired six of the 10 parish names in SC. Governor Nathaniel Johnson Dissenters were upset over the Church of England being named the official church of the colony. The Dissenters refused to serve in the Assembly for a few years. Eventually, Dissenters would serve in the Assembly. The Yamasee War (1715-1718) Yamasee Indians attacked plantations near Port Royal. Revenge for building town of Beaufort on their land between the Combahee and Savannah Rivers. Also, tired of trade abuses, enslavement, and white settlers taking their land. Nearly 100 people killed.
Posed serious threat to survival of SC, NC and VA colonies. Despite the threat, NC and VA colonies offered little help. Help came in the form of weapons from Massachusetts. Several bloody battles occurred. South Carolinians eventually defeated the Yamasee and pushed them beyond the Savannah River. The war continued despite the retreat of the Yamasee. The Yamasee War (1715-1718) All the tribes in the region united with the Yamasee except the Cherokee and Chickasaw. Cherokee were looking for revenge against the Creek, not because they wanted to help the English. Cherokee were instrumental in ending the war. The aftermath of the Yamasee War:
Nearly destroyed SC. About 400 colonists were killed. An estimated 6% of white SC colonists were killed. About half of the colonys farmland and plantations were destroyed. The Revolution of 1719 Over time the Dissenters and Goose Creek Men united against the Lords Proprietors. Unhappy that the Lords Proprietors were not protecting the colony. SC had been attacked by Spanish, pirates and the Yamasee. The Lords Proprietors offered little help from these attacks. In 1719, two factions asked the king to take direct control of the colony. The British government appoints a royal governor Over the next 10 years the British government and the Lords Proprietors negotiated over the sale of their interests back to the king. During negotiations, the Lords Proprietors continued to influence some governing of the colony.
Economic difficulties occurred due to damage to rice crops. Finally in 1729, the Lords Proprietors sold all their interests in SC and the colony officially became a royal colony. Overall, the revolution involved weapons, but never resulted in battles or fighting. A Royal Government A new government Structured like most colonies. The king appointed a royal governor. Six men over the next 45 years served as royal governor. The bicameral legislature consisted of an upper and lower house.
The upper house was known as the Royal Council. The lower house was known as the Commons House of Assembly. A Royal Government Royal Governor Royal Council (upper house) Appointed by the British government in London Advised the royal governor
Served as colonial court Appointed by the king Oversaw colonial trade Approved all laws made by the legislature Could convene or dismiss the Commons House of Assembly Commons House of Assembly (lower house) Elected by qualified voters in colony Controlled colonys finances by making tax laws and paying governors salary Made other necessary laws
and policies for colony A Royal Government The Royal Governor Oversaw colonial trade and approved all laws made by the legislature. He could order the assembly to meet or close and assembly session. He could also dismiss the entire assembly. This tactic was used when he disagreed with the assembly. If this happened, the assembly would have to wait for new elections to occur before meeting again. A Royal Government The Royal Council Comprised of 12 men approved by officials in London. The royal governor could make recommendations. Best way to get on the council was to have good connections with the king or his
officials. The majority of the council were wealthy SC planters or merchants. Councilmen could serve for as long as they stayed in good standings with the British government. Advised the governor on colonial policies and laws. Served as the upper house of the legislative branch. Reviewed and approved bills from the Commons House of Assembly. Served as a court for the colony. The highest ranking councilmen was the president who also served as lieutenant governor for the colony. He served as governor when necessary. Only three men served as lieutenant governor during the royal period. A Royal Government The Commons House The colonys representative assembly.
Limited to 48 representatives. Most representatives were among the lowcountry elite. The wealthiest men in SC. The wealthiest men in all of the colonies. Included successful planters, lawyers, merchants and other professionals, mainly from Charleston. Representatives were elected by qualified voters. The assembly controlled the colonys finances. Determined tax policies. Paid the governors salary. Awarded the governors annual bonus. Sometimes the assembly refused to pay the governors salary until he supported their policies instead of the kings policies.
Representatives were not paid. Were required to meet at least once every six months. Often met for eight months at a time, six days a week for six hours a day. A Royal Government The Township Plan King appointed Robert Johnson as governor. Excellent leader. Period of economic growth under his leadership. The plan created 12 townships. Each township had 20,000 acres of land. Surveyors mapped out towns along inland rivers. Towns were suppose to serve as a buffer between the lowcountry and hostile Indians and European rivals to the west and south.
Plan to bring more white people to colony. More blacks than whites in the lowcountry. Offered a headright to new settlers. Head of each new family given 100 acres. An additional 50 acres given for every family member, white servant, and slave. Land rent-free for 10 years. Transportation provided to colony plus a years supply of supplies. Paid for by increasing the imported slave tax.
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