Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an ...

Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an ...

Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance Otso Ovaskainen, Alan D. Smith, Juliet L. Osborne, Don R. Reynolds, Norman L. Carreck, Andrew P. Martinb,Kristjan Niitepld, and Ilkka Hanski PNAS December 9, 2008 vol. 105 no.49 19090-19095 95230017 95230028

2 ---------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------

---------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- 3 ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------------

---------------------------------- ---------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- 4 5

6 Glanville fritillary butterfly :Melitaea cinxia : : : : : :

: Melitaea http://www.purple-emperor.co.uk/index.h 7 30~40mm

http://www.helsinki.fi/science/metapop/index.h 8 Finland land island Estonia Saaremaa island (

) ( ) land 9 Estonia Saaremaa http://www.osterholm.info/aland/index.html http://www.cromwell-intl.com/travel/estonia/ http://www.peakbagger.com/range.aspx?rid=46

10 radar Harmonic

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v403/n6769/full/403537a0 11 12 Plan Position Indicator (PPI)

Radar scope http://improve.atmos.washington.edu/improve2/IOP/improve2ioplo plasticity phenotype

Phenotypic 13 14 fragmentation

Habitat http://greenerloudoun.wordpress.com/ http://www.forestbiodiversityinbc.ca/manage_issues_fragment.a 15

Dispersal 16 17

dispersal dispersal unoccupy Dispersal http://www.helsinki.fi/science/metapop/index. 18

dispersal 1. 2.Phenotypic plasticity

19 Heino etal. 2001 Hanski etal. 2004 Hanski etal. 2006 land island

Ehrlich etal. 2004 20 garden mark-recapture dispersal Hanski etal. 2002 !

mark-recaptur Harmonic radar 21 locally dispersal Hanski etal. 2006 Dispersal

22 China Estonia land Island landscape 1. 2. China Estonia

23 24 dispersal

dispersal ex: flight bouts 25

26 Origin and Maintenance of Butterflies Field Procedures

Data Preparation and Data Quality data Statistical Analyses Origin and Maintenance of Butterflies

land island Estonia Saaremaa n=15 island 7 66 n=24 11 family

n=16 5 n=11 3 family family family 27

Field Procedures Wretham 28 Norfolk East

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/10315592 29 3~6 11

& 2 Data Preparation and Data Quality 30 radar

radar Plan Position Indicator (PPI) 2~3m Harmonic

Statistical Analyses SAS 9.1.3 backward model selection

( ) p 0.05 a( ) )+b( )+c(

)+d( SAS 9.1.3 31 32 33

Paths Reconstructed with Harmonic Radar Data. Maximal Distance Moved in Two Hours. Activity Measured as Movements in 5 active min Intervals. flightofbout Flight Speed and Length

Individual ground speed Bouts. Geometry of Flight Paths. Flight

Flight Paths Reconstructed with Harmonic Radar Data 34 35

Flight Paths Reconstructed with Harmonic Radar Data 36 37 (Plan Position Indicator

13:1 9 3 14:5 0 13:5 9 38 66

The distribution of observed movement distances ranged from 9 to 5490 m, with the median of 505 m 39 Absolute value of turning angle 135 40

41

42

Maximal Distance Moved in Two Hours 43 44 Maximal Distance Moved in Two Hours 2

45 900 m 200 m - 300 m (land)

S(aaremaa) 488 m Minimum 9 m Maximum 3730 m C(hina) 46

& 47

49 50 land

Activity Measured as Movements in 5-min Intervals 51

Activity Measured as Movements in 5min Intervals 5 active inactive active Moved at least 5

m 52 55 land new (black) Saaremaa (green) Chinese (yellow)

land old (red) 56 57 Fig.3 58

Active population active Chinese

Speed and Length of Individual Flight Bouts 59 Speed and length of individual flight bouts

Flight bout Flight bout flight bout ground Speed and Length of Individual Flight Bouts 354 flight

bouts 7 415 32 25 20.0CC Flight bouts 62 63

land new populations (black) land old populations (red) Saaremaa populations (green) Chinese populations (yellow) 64 flight bouts ground speed

bouts ground speed Flight 65 Geometry of Flight

Paths 66 67 Geometry of Flight Paths

68 BACK and FORTH Geometry of Flight Paths

(F3,31=0.07, P=0.97) 70 Geometry of Flight Paths

Geometry of Flight Paths 200~220m Geometry of Flight Paths

(F3,39=1.17, P=0.33) (F3,48=0.12, P=0.95) (F3,31=0.13, P=0.94) 74

ground speed active flight bouts flight bouts

land 76 77 DISCUSSION

78 ( 19-23oC ) ( ) ( )

79 flight bouts active 80

1. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance dispersal A. B. C. D.

81 2. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance

A. B. C. D. land new populations land old populations Saaremaa populations Chinese populations 82

3. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance Ground Speed A. B. C. D. land new populations

land old populations Saaremaa populations Chinese populations 83 4. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance A.

B. C. D. land new populations land old populations Saaremaa populations Chinese populations 84 5. Tracking butterfly movements

with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance dispersal A. B. C. D.

85 86

http://www.butterfly-conservation.org/ http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/intro.html http://rusinsects.com/main.htm http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.2307/1941732

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v403/n6769/full/ 403537a0.html http://www.purple-emperor.co.uk/index.htm http://www.helsinki.fi/science/metapop/index.htm http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v403/n6769/full/ 403537a0.html http://improve.atmos.washington.edu/improve2/IOP/ improve2ioplog.html http://www.forestbiodiversityinbc.ca/ manage_issues_fragment.asp 87

http://www.helsinki.fi/science/metapop/index.htm http://www.sri.com/esd/penetratingradar/harmonic/ harmonic.html http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8210298J http://www.jhuapl.edu/ott/technologies/technology/ articles/P01620.asp http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ articlerender.fcgi?artid=1599857 http://www.edaboard.com/ftopic247137.html http://web.mit.edu/gr20603/www/website%20pdfs/

Harmonic_radar_APS_2003.pdf http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/ projects.htm?ACCN_NO=410673 88

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_position_indicator http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/462845/planposition-indicator http://www.tpub.com/content/fc/14102/css/14102_46.htm http://www.argospress.com/Resources/radar/ planpositiindica.htm http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/wwhlpr/ppi_scan.rxml

http://www.freshpatents.com/Radar-scan-conversion-forplan-position-indicator-dt20070719ptan20070164899.php http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/donohue/jewel.htm http://books.google.com.tw/books? id=JoCFupYhdNQC&dq=Phenotypic+plasticity&printsec=frontcover&s ource=bl&ots=K228POkkpO&sig=8goYQMABpqujPZcgEx8QzqK1Uc8&hl=zhTW&ei=hVskSpn6FcOTkAWU7pyEBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=2 89

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