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Careers in Tech Cracking the tech careers code Creative & Digital Careers Cluster for the Legacy Boroughs - Schools & College Meeting @ New City College, Hackney 14th June 2017 Catherine OMahony, careers adviser Central Careers Hub Central Careers Hub 2017 Careers in Tech Why is this training needed?

Tech definitions Understanding tech careers Routes into tech careers Central Careers Hub 2017 Why is this training needed? Tech industries are a key contributor to the UKs economy, growing faster in turnover, GVA and productivity than the rest of the economy. In 2016, the turnover of digital tech businesses reached 170 billion, an increase of 30 billion (+22%) in just five years. In 2016, UK digital tech investment reached 6.8 billion, thats 50% higher than any other European country. In 2012-2014, 32,000 new businesses were created in the EC1V postcode (Silicon Roundabout / Tech City). The growth rate of digital jobs was more than double that of nondigital jobs between 2011 and 2015.

The number of tech specialist workers has been estimated to increase by 28% between 2014-2024 (compared to 8% for all workers). Central Careers Hub 2017 Why else is this training needed? The tech sector is scary and confusing! Central Careers Hub 2017 Why else is this training needed? The tech sector is scary and confusing! Cloud Ruby

Verticals C# Big Data Angular Fintech Python 1st Line Support Blockchain Adtech Sysomos IoT

Drupal Central Careers Hub 2017 Front-end Why else is this training needed? The tech sector is scary and confusing! The diverse digital industries have grown over the past five years . They are disrupting traditional industries, forging new innovative sectors and creating new ways of doing business. These developments are now inextricably bound to our national economic story and global competitiveness, interwoven so closely that we can no longer view sectors and industries in strict isolation. No [research] project can claim to offer definitive, complete

coverage; the digital economy is too fast moving for that. Tech Nation: Powering The Digital Economy (Tech City UK, 2015) There is no consensus on how to define the digital sector BIS response to MAC call for evidence of skills shortages in the sector (2014) Central Careers Hub 2017 Tech definitions Tech = digital technology (in this context). The tech industry = all tech businesses in the UK. The tech sector = The tech industry + tech specialist workers in other industries. New born digital sectors, such as gaming or mobile phone apps. Traditional sectors that have been disrupted or impacted by digital, such as financial services or fashion. Can you think of a sector that hasnt been impacted

by tech? Central Careers Hub 2017 Tech definitions Digital Disruption has already happened Worlds largest taxi company owns no taxis (Uber) Largest accommodation provider owns no real estate (Airbnb) Largest phone companies own no telco infrastructure (Skype, WeChat) Worlds most valuable retailer has no inventory (Alibaba) Most popular media owner creates no content (Facebook) Fastest growing banks have no actual money (SocietyOne) Worlds largest movie house owns no cinemas (NetFlix) Largest software vendors dont write the apps (Apple & Google) (Taken from Sandy Carters presentation at an IBM for Entrepreneurs event, 2015)

Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Overview of employment in the sector In 2015, there were 1.75m people working in the tech sector. The average digital salary in the UK is 50,663 - 44% higher than the average non-digital salary (its 61,803 in London). 68% of tech specialists hold degree or HE level qualifications, compared to 42% in the workforce as a whole. In 2015, 23% of tech workers were female. In 2015, 61% of tech workers were in tech businesses and 39% worked within other industries. 44% of tech industry workers were based in London and the southeast, compared to 29% of all workers. Silicon Roundabout/Tech City + Kings Cross (Knowledge Quarter). Tech companies are now taking up more office space in London than banks and law firms.

However, there are digital clusters growing rapidly across the Central Careers Hub 2017 UK. Understanding tech careers Why its not all tech in tech: a simple tech value chain Idea and spec 40% Build 20% Selling 40%

Furthermore, not all tech jobs require coding skills. Examples include: digital marketing and tech support. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTS Gardner/OMahony 2015 Verticals Occupations (jobs) Technologies Skills

Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers

Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers Verticals: some examples Adtech

Data management & analytics Design Edtech Electronics & components Entertainment/media Fintech Gaming Hardware & devices Healthtech (medtech) Retail Cyber security Software development Telecommunications Travel Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers Verticals In Careers IAG, we are used to working with industry and job categories this is no different. Verticals are simply (sub)sectors or industry types that digital companies/specialists are working in. Marketing term vertical and horizontal markets. Some verticals are born digital; some are traditional. Some vertical names look scary, but really, you can put tech at the end of almost anything! Edtech = education, fintech = finance, healthtec = health. Central Careers Hub 2017 Lists of verticals differ

according to context and Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers

Occupations Tech specialist job titles from job ads, June 2017: Front end developer Senior back end developer QA tester Drupal tech lead

Python developer Data architect UX lead iOS Developer Angular engineer Full stack developer (PHP/JS) Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Occupations Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Occupations Tips for understanding tech job titles: Recognise most other people (including some tech people) dont understand them either!

Terms often overlap, eg developer/programmer, application/program. Then there are terms that can means lots of things depending on context, eg architect, consultant, engineer. Scary words in job titles are often programming languages or software products, eg, Python, Ruby, Angular, Drupal. In web/app design, it can help to know the difference between front end (the bits we can see and interact with) and back end (the bits behind the scenes). Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Occupations IT Jobs Watch (www.itjobswatch.co.uk) collates information on the current job market for tech specialist roles. However, this data should be used with caution

as many tech jobs are filled by informal means (eg social media, word of mouth, headhunting). Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Occupations From www.itjobswatch.co.uk Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Occupations From Employment bulletin, Sep 2015 (The Tech Partnership) Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers

Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers Technology types some examples

Mobile Cloud Social Smart cities Big data Analytics Wearables Internet of things (IoT) Blockchain

Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Technology types some definitions Mobile - technology that is portable, eg laptops, tablets, smartphones, GPS devices. Cloud - Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, so cloud technology enables data and programmes to be stored and accessed via the Internet, rather than via computers/devices. Social - technology enabling people to connect/collaborate. Smart Cities - technologies that enhance quality and performance of urban services, reduce costs/consumption and aid effective engagement with citizens. Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers Technology types some definitions Big Data - technology required to manage large amounts of data that traditional software cant handle. Analytics - technology required to analyse the above in order to gain useful knowledge from it. Wearables - technology that can be worn, eg Apple Watch, Google Glasses. Internet of things (IoT) - technology enabling a variety of devices to connect with each other and their environment via the Internet, eg smart heating systems. Blockchain - database used for tracking or transferring data. It is partly public and Central Careers Hub 2017 decentralised, which means that nothing can be

Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers Skills

Tech skills - either broad areas of capability or specific specialist skills related to using programme languages, software or hardware products (eg JavaScript, Python, Ruby, C#, Angular). Can be as confusing as tech job titles, therefore most of those tips for understanding still apply! The 2015 Tech Nation report considered broad capabilities and set out which ones were most important for which verticals/sectors Central . Careers Hub 2017 From Tech Nation: Powering The Digital Economy (Tech City UK, 2015) Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers Skills - shortages Skills shortages appear to be common in the tech sector and many employers struggle to recruit for certain roles. Different sources provide conflicting information on what the skills shortages are, complicated further by overlapping job titles, different definitions, etc. The common themes are skills shortages involving: big data analytics more experienced/senior tech specialists cyber security (NB: most cyber Central security professionals transition Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers Skills - shortages From the UK Government approved shortage occupation list: IT product manager, data scientist (big data), senior developer, cyber security specialist. NB: 5 years experience, including management, required for all these. systems engineer, software developer, games designer in visual effects and 2D/3D computer animation for the film, television or video games sectors. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015

Occupations Verticals Tech Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Applying the same principles to a traditional career area Verticals building properties

Occupations - bricklayer Tech Careers Matrix Skills manual dexterity, physical fitness, accuracy, able to work Technologies bricks, cement, from plans, teamworking trowels (eg bricklaying level 2 diploma) Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 1 Vertical: Gaming

From Techopedia.com: Gaming refers to playing electronic games, whether through consoles, computers, mobile phones or another medium altogether. Gaming is a nuanced term that suggests regular gameplay, possibly as a hobby. Although traditionally a solitary form of relaxation, online multiplayer video games have made gaming a popular group activity as well. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 1 Occupation: Unity developer From www.cogsagency.com/jobs: You will be passionate about game development, and keen to broaden your skillset. You will be developing shaders, particle systems and custom effects. Helping integrate 3rd party SDKfs. Collaborating closely with a product team including the Senior Unity Developer, Artists, Games Designers and Producers.

Ideally you will at least a year of experience developing 2D or 3D games for mobile platforms using Unity with C#. Excellent communication and organizational skills. A very good eye for detail and work under pressure with excellent problem solving skills. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Therefore, for this vacancy Occupation = Unity developer Vertical = Gaming Tech Careers Matrix Technologies = Mobile

Skills = Unity with C#. Excellent communication and organizational skills. A very good eye for detail and work under pressure with excellent problem solving skills. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 2 Vertical: Fintech Digital technology applied to finance. Includes technology that supports current systems and that disrupts them with new innovative methods. Examples include: online and mobile banking, mobile wallets, peer to peer lending, and crowd funding. Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers VOTs example 2 Occupation: Cyber security/ information security analyst Extract from https://jobs.barclays.co.uk: Skills and knowledge required include: Experience of working within information risk field, including systems audit or internal controls, preferably in the financial sector. Knowledge on information security, including infrastructure security architectures and configurations, application/database security, encryption mechanisms, logical data/information storage techniques, data management or mobile technologies. Strong communication skills, both written and verbal. Strong analytical and project management skills would be beneficial. Influencing and negotiating skills would be beneficial. Strong academic background, educated to degree level or equivalent experience Relevant privacy/information risk qualifications e.g. CISA, CISSP, CISM would

be beneficial Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Therefore, for this vacancy Occupation = Cyber security/information security analyst Vertical = Fintech Tech Careers Matrix Technologies = Data management or mobile technologies Skills = Systems audit, internal controls, communication, analytical and project management

Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 3 Vertical: Healthtech According to the World Health Organization, health technology refers to the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of lives. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 3

Occupation: 1st line technical analyst From www.jitr.co.uk: Skills and experience required include: Expertise in the operation of all Microsoft Office applications and software including Windows 7, Exchange and Outlook Experience using Active Directory Mac Experience desired Previous experience of using call-logging or job-tracking systems. Previous experience of maintaining and troubleshooting IT desktop hardware and software, including Apple and Microsoft systems and printers. NB: Employees working in 1st line support are the first point of contact in a tech support team. They are usually part of a helpdesk and are responsible for logging technical issues or requests. Many entrants to tech support roles will have a qualification called the CompTIA A+, which demonstrates competency as a computer technician. They do not need coding skills. Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers Therefore, for this vacancy Vertical = Healthtech Occupation = 1st line technical analyst Tech Careers Matrix Technologies = Desktop hardware and software Skills = Those covered by COMPTIA A+ Central Careers Hub 2017

Understanding tech careers VOTs example 4 Vertical: Adtech According to Techopedia.com, adtech or advertising technology broadly refers to different types of analytics and digital tools used in the context of advertising. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers VOTs example 4 Occupation: Junior content analyst From www.cogsagency.com/jobs: You will have a strong understanding of social reporting and know how to spot an online trend. You will have some digital agency experience and have a strong

interest in data reporting, content analytics and social channels. Experienced with social listening and social media monitoring, including Hootsuite, Socialbakers, Sysomos and Hexagon. Experience producing social and content reports for fashion, telecoms, FMCG or alcohol brands. Strong Excel and PowerPoint skills Strong communication and reporting skills. NB: This is a tech role that requires an ability to make use of data technologies, but does not require coding skills. Hootsuite, etc. are examples of social media management systems. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Therefore, for this vacancy Occupation = Junior content analyst

Vertical = Adtech Tech Careers Matrix Technologies = Desktop hardware and software, mobile Skills = Hootsuite, Socialbakers, Excel, Powerpoint, communication. Central Careers Hub 2017 Understanding tech careers Tech Careers Matrix Gardner/OMahony 2015 Occupations Verticals Tech

Careers Matrix Technologies Central Careers Hub 2017 Skills Routes into tech careers When asked about barriers to recruiting leavers from fulltime education, the most common reasons cited [by employers] are technical skills, along with a lack of skills in general. Employer Insights: Skills Survey 2015 (The Tech Partnership, May 2015) Too much publicly funded provision is out of date, unplanned and confusing. Courses at all levels are based on standards that are more than 5 years old.

Review of Publicly Funded Digital Skills Qualifications (Skills Funding Agency, February 2016) Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Education Breakdown of those from FTE in junior tech specialist positions from Employer Insights: Skills Survey 2015 (The Tech Partnership, May 2015) Junior positions for tech specialists are most likely to be filled by individuals leaving full-time education (39%), followed by experienced hires and job changers (30% and 28% respectively).

Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers From Tech Nation: Transforming UK industries, (Tech City UK, 2016) Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers 12.6 million adults in the UK lack basic digital skills; 5.8 million people have never used the internet; only 35% of computer teachers in schools have a relevant degree and 30% of the required number of computer science teachers have not been recruited; and 13% of computer graduates are still unemployed 6 months after leaving university. This digital skills gap is

costing the UK economy 63 billion a year in lost GDP. Summary of findings from Digital Skills Crisis report (House of Commons Science & Technology Committee, June Central Careers Hub 2017 2016) Routes into tech careers An important starting point is being clear on what we mean by digital skills. There is currently too much jargon and too little consistency in the language used. [W]e must move away from the belief that people can acquire these essential skills by osmosis. We should not confuse the confidence young people have using technology with the overwhelming need to put in place a robust

structure to deliver digital skills to the level required in the UK. Review of Publicly Funded Digital Skills (Skills Funding Agency, Feb 2016) Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Digital Skills Strategy (March 2017) Computing at School Network of Teaching Excellence in Computer Science (350 master teachers). Bursaries and scholarships to encourage computer science graduates into teaching. Over 5,000 out-of-school code clubs, plus discounted computer schemes for children and young people. Digital skills and digital careers education to be included in National Citizen Service programmes.

Industrial Strategy green paper (Jan 2017): new Central Careers Hub 2017 technical education pathways, institutes of Routes into tech careers Digital Skills Strategy (March 2017) cont. Increased number of computer science undergraduates undertaking work experience, plus revised degree course accreditation system. Various initiatives to encourage more women into tech (at all levels, including young girls and mothers). Development of a Cyber Skills Strategy, to include schools programme, higher/degree apprenticeships and retraining programme. Developing common digital skills language. Various companies are running initiatives to improve digital skills, including Amazon, HP,

Accenture, Apple,Central Samsung, Sky and CISCO. Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Ada, National College for Digital Skills (opened Sep 2016) Based in Tottenham Hale, 6th form courses starting Sep 2017, now recruiting for apprentices aged 19+. Will train 5,000 students over five years for a wide range of digital careers, such as software and database developers, user experience designers and tech entrepreneurs. Aims to develop a primarily online learning platform by summer 2017, which will pilot innovative techniques, gamified content and peer-to-peer elements to develop coding skills.

Working with private sector organisations, such as Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Deloitte and IBM, plus partnering with Google to launch the Higher Level Apprenticeship in Digital Innovation Program. Central Careers Hub 2017 Target for 50% of students at Ada to be women by 2020. Routes into tech careers KS4 and further education Government scrapped ICT GCSEs and A-levels in favour of computer science. Coding being taught (at primary and secondary level). Computer science added to the EBacc. Examples of relevant post-16 qualifications: A-levels physics, maths, computer science, design & technology. BTEC - computing, IT, creative media production,

creative digital media production, science, media, engineering, electronic/electrical engineering. Cambridge Nationals and Technicals - similar Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Higher education In each of the last six years, more students have begun computer science courses than physics, chemistry and maths combined. Unemployment for 2015 computer science graduates was 10% - much higher than for other graduates. However, the over picture is more complicated as computer science students who are in employment are more likely to be in graduate level work and well paid. Those who take a sandwich course enjoy much lower levels of

unemployment (6%) than those who dont (15%). Graduates from sandwich courses are twice as likely to be earning more than 20,000 compared with those who completed a standard degree. Earlier stats from 2014 suggest class of degree is significant: 82% of tech graduates with a first class degree were in work compared to 70% of those with a third. Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Higher education As part of the Shadbolt review, employers were asked what skills IT graduates should possess to best meet their needs. The most common answers were: computer science specific skills, eg programming languages soft skills, including communication project management skills

Some employers reject the need for graduates to know particular programming languages, arguing that the key thing that they look for is the ability to learn and select what is relevant based upon the task rather than simply to know the latest language. Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Higher education Tech Industry Gold degrees: An initiative from the Tech Partnership. Tech Industry Gold degrees are defined by employers to provide students with the technical, business and interpersonal skills that place them in high demand in the tech sector. Software Development for Business BSc, IT Management for Business BSc and MSc. Higher rates of employment (100%), higher proportion of firsts or 2:1s, and double the number of

females than computing degrees overall. List of universities available on Tech Partnership site. Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Higher education Degree apprenticeships: Employment combined with training, to gain a full BSC or MSC Honours degree. Degree apprenticeships last 3-5 years (normally 4). Learners are paid (there are no tuition fees and starting salaries are around 14,000-22,500). Employment should continue when the degree apprenticeship is complete. Apprenticeships available include: cyber security analyst, data analyst, business analyst, network engineer, software engineer and more. Vacancies are mainly advertised on

employer/recruitment websites, with support from higher education institutions. Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Apprenticeships Apprenticeship Framework Creative & digital media Apprenticeship type/sector Arts, Media & Publishing Business, Social media & Administration &

digital marketing Law Information & Digital Industries Communication Technology Information & IT application Communication specialist Technology IT, software, web & Information & telecoms Communication professionals Technology Total London vacancies Intermediate

Advanced Higher Degree 6 0 6 0 0 26

1 25 0 0 87 0 66 18 3

4 4 0 0 0 47 5 40 2

0 Tech related vacancies on www.getingofar.gov.uk, 13th June 2017 81% of tech related London vacancies are advanced and 6% intermediate. 24% of all London vacancies are advanced and 73% intermediate. Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Privately funded courses Thriving, proven, but less well known route especially for those wanting to get into software development and tech support. Popular amongst career changers and graduates (even tech graduates). Intensive and last several months. Can include work placement.

Costs vary, but generally several thousands of pounds. Many providers offer payment plans or loans, often with the bulk being paid once employment has been found. A few providers, such as Just IT, guarantee a job Central Careers Hub 2017 at the end. Routes into tech careers TechFuture Badge Academy Tech Partnership initiative that aims to bridge the gap between industry and education. Online courses for young people designed and endorsed by leading companies, leading to bronze, silver, gold and platinum badges. Skills covered include HTML, hacking, web design, coding, games design, app building and more.

Compatible with Mozillas wider Open Badges scheme (big in US, now spreading internationally). Central Careers Hub 2017 Routes into tech careers Other things we didnt have time to cover in depth Internships they do exist in the tech sector, mainly in creative roles, but most seem to be paid. Most graduates (30%) get into tech specialist jobs via recruitment agencies. Notable advice from tech industry experts: (a) be prepared to work hard (b) if youre working on a start-up, focus on building it, rather than selling it!

Central Careers Hub 2017 Is the tech sector still as scary and confusing? Cloud Ruby Verticals C# Big Data Angular Fintech Python 1st Line Support

Blockchain Adtech Sysomos IoT Drupal Central Careers Hub 2017 Front-end Careers in Tech Questions? Central Careers Hub 2017

Careers in Tech Resources www.techcityuk.com/technation www.thetechpartnership.com The Flat White Economy: How the Digital Economy is Transforming London and Other Cities of the Future (Douglas McWilliams, 2015) www.webopedia.com and www.techopedia.com www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-digital-strategy www.itjobswatch.co.uk www.cogsagency.com www.justit.co.uk Central Careers Hub 2017

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