Theory and Research Neuman and Robson Ch. 2 What is Theory? a statement of relationships between concepts a roadmap for organizing ideas and knowledge about the social world Explicit
vs. implicit Parsimony principle Parsimony: Occams Razor Occam's (or Ockham's) razor is a principle attributed to the 14th century logician and Franciscan friar; William of Occam. Ockham was the village in the English county of Surrey where he was born. "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate"
"when you have two competing theories which make exactly the same predictions, the one that is simpler is the better. From http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/occam.html Quasi-Theory A. Ideology 1. the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement,
institution, class, or large group. 2. such a body of doctrine, myth, etc., with reference to some political and social plan, as that of fascism, along with the devices for putting it into operation. from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ideology Quasi-Theory (cont.) B. Blame Analysis
a type of counterfeit argument presented as if it were a theoretical explanation (Neuman) Attributes blame rather than providing a causal explanation Theory Parts Concepts Concept clusters
Classification concepts (ideal types) Relationships Can be represented by a model Dimensions of Theory A. Ontology (how do we know?) and Epistemology (what do we know?)
Empiricism: knowledge comes from experience of the social world. Can verify through testing hypotheses. Relativism: values, knowledge, behavior of people should be understood within own cultural context Rationalism: reason is the basis of knowledge. B. Deductive vs. Inductive (see next slide) C. Levels of Theory
Micro small scale social processes Meso organizations and movements Macro large scale social processes Purpose of Theory Explain Predict Establish causality Theoretical Frameworks General
context and content of beliefs/assumptions Major sociological theories Structural Functionalism Exchange and Rational Choice Theory Symbolic Interactionism Includes Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology and
Labelling Theory Conflict Includes Marxism and Feminism Comparison of Theoretical Frameworks (see next slide) Theoretical frameworks differ on a number of aspects: 1.
2. 3. 4. The level of analysis being used by the researcher to look at society The view that is taken of human beings and their actions and behaviour What factors prompt human action What type of scientific approach is used by the researcher to study society Theoretical Frameworks on Sports
In describing sports, the following statements might be made Structural Functionalism Exchange and Rational Choice Theory Involvement in team sports can lead to prestige and recognition for men
Symbolic Interactionism Sports promote solidarity, binding communities and nations together Sports contribute to teamwork and friendships as well as parent-child involvement Conflict Sports discriminate against women and minorities
Types of Explanations: Prediction Causal and explanation explanations Structural Explanations Interpretive
explanations Major Approaches or Paradigms in Social Science integrated set of assumptions, beliefs, models of doing good research, and techniques for gathering and analyzing data 1. Positivism* (*the earliest paradigms) 2. Interpretivism* 3. Critical Social Science 4. Feminist and Postmodern Research A paradigm is the theoretical framework and the methodology used to investigate the
theory Multiple or competing paradigms in sociology
To place an order, please email [email protected] For a list of plants currently available, please refer to our availability list, which can be found on our website. All orders are subject to Biemond Nurseries terms & conditions. Please contact [email protected]
For the adversary system to work effectively the judge must be impartial. Essential that the decision maker (judge or jury) is independent from the case. Judge has no prior knowledge of the case before hearing the evidence presented.
A. Waechter, L.T. Biegler (2006)."On the Implementation of a Primal-Dual Interior Point Filter Line Search Algorithm for Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming", Mathematical Programming . 106:25-57. A Fast MINLP Heuristic
Although Lincoln believed America was "conceived in liberty," this conception did not produce liberty for all; the Civil War was testimony to that. In 1776 Thomas Jefferson said that "all men are created equal" was a self-evident truth… Lincoln calls...
Account/Media Strategy and Planning. Campaign Strategy. Objectives - What are your goals? Targeting - Who are your best prospects? Timing - When to market the product/service? Geography - Where to concentrate your efforts?
Of Mice and Men By : John Steinbeck Of Mice and Men: Chapter One Exposition: - Salinas, Ca., during the Great Depression. - George & Lennie are the protagonists. -Steinbeck uses rich imagery & character description/dialogue to introduce the main...
Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow. My Papa's Waltz. The whiskey on your breath ...