Theories in Human Development

Theories in Human Development

THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Theories what are they good for? Understanding Generalization A basis for decision making Predicting future events Define the next questions to ask

Theories Good theory criteria: Logically Emperically sound Clear, testable and parsimonious Cover a reasonably large area of science

and should integrate previous research Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. Nature versus Nurture The questions:

Which? How? Behaviorist Pscychoanalytic How much?

Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic Theory

A theory of human development irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior. often originating in childhood Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) Psychoanalytic TheoryFreud Libido Personality has 3 parts that change over time:

Id Ego Superego Psychoanalytic-Freud Defense Mechanisms Repression

Reaction Formation W6Eo&feature=relmfu Projection Regression Fixation

Freuds Psychosexual Stages 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Psychoanalytic-Freud Optimum development Emphasis on the formative role of the early experience What do you think? How important are

the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality? Psychoanalytic - Erikson A student of Freuds Followed Freuds stage theory Development = Inner instincts X

Cultural/social demands Throughout the lifespan Development occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises Psychoanalytic- Erikson

8 crisis: Trust V. Mistrust Autonomy v. shame and doubt Initiative v. guilt Industry v. inferiority Identity v. role confusion Intimacy v. isolation Generation v. stagnation Integrity v. despair Theories of Human Development

Behaviorism Observable behavior Conditioning The Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR)

Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR) Neutral stimulus (NS) Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli NS and US presented together NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR)

Theories of Human Development Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (19041990) Desired outcomes = more likely to repeat Undesired outcomes = less likely to repeat Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement

Negative reinforcement Behavior leads to addition of something pleasant Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant Negative reinforcement is not punishment

Negative means removing something Remember that reinforcement increases behavior Positive and Negative Punishment Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior Positive punishment

Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior Negative punishment Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura

(b. 1925) An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a persons behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing

themselves or altering their social context. Social Learning Theory and Cognition Four steps to modeling Attention Retention Reproduction of behavior

Motivation Theories of Human Development Cognitive Theory Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. Focuses on changes in how people think over time. Jean Piaget (18961980) Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget

Stages of Cognitive Development 1.Sensorimotor Stage 2.Preoperational Stage 3.Concrete Operational Stage 4.Formal Operational Stage 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Theories of Human Development

Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Theories of Human Development

Systems Theory Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (19172005) The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. Theories of Human Development

Five Components of Bronfenbrenners System microsystems (elements of the persons immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group) exosystems (local institutions such as school and church) macrosystems (the larger social setting,

including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes) Theories of Human Development chronosystem (literally, time system), which affects the other three systems mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems

Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments Contexts

Macrosystem Exosystem Microsystem Mesosystem Biological Context 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Comparing Theories 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

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