THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Theories what are they good for? Understanding Generalization A basis for decision making Predicting future events Define the next questions to ask
Theories Good theory criteria: Logically Emperically sound Clear, testable and parsimonious Cover a reasonably large area of science
and should integrate previous research Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. Nature versus Nurture The questions:
Which? How? Behaviorist Pscychoanalytic How much?
Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic Theory
A theory of human development irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior. often originating in childhood Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) Psychoanalytic TheoryFreud Libido Personality has 3 parts that change over time:
Id Ego Superego Psychoanalytic-Freud Defense Mechanisms Repression
Freuds Psychosexual Stages 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Psychoanalytic-Freud Optimum development Emphasis on the formative role of the early experience What do you think? How important are
the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality? Psychoanalytic - Erikson A student of Freuds Followed Freuds stage theory Development = Inner instincts X
Cultural/social demands Throughout the lifespan Development occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises Psychoanalytic- Erikson
8 crisis: Trust V. Mistrust Autonomy v. shame and doubt Initiative v. guilt Industry v. inferiority Identity v. role confusion Intimacy v. isolation Generation v. stagnation Integrity v. despair Theories of Human Development
Behaviorism Observable behavior Conditioning The Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR)
Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR) Neutral stimulus (NS) Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli NS and US presented together NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR)
Theories of Human Development Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (19041990) Desired outcomes = more likely to repeat Undesired outcomes = less likely to repeat Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement Behavior leads to addition of something pleasant Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant Negative reinforcement is not punishment
Negative means removing something Remember that reinforcement increases behavior Positive and Negative Punishment Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior Positive punishment
Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior Negative punishment Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura
(b. 1925) An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a persons behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing
themselves or altering their social context. Social Learning Theory and Cognition Four steps to modeling Attention Retention Reproduction of behavior
Motivation Theories of Human Development Cognitive Theory Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. Focuses on changes in how people think over time. Jean Piaget (18961980) Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development 1.Sensorimotor Stage 2.Preoperational Stage 3.Concrete Operational Stage 4.Formal Operational Stage 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Theories of Human Development
Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Theories of Human Development
Systems Theory Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (19172005) The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. Theories of Human Development
Five Components of Bronfenbrenners System microsystems (elements of the persons immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group) exosystems (local institutions such as school and church) macrosystems (the larger social setting,
including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes) Theories of Human Development chronosystem (literally, time system), which affects the other three systems mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems
Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments Contexts
A better method uses Dynamic Programming techniques. The following discussion examines only the lengths of common subsequences and not the actual sequences - simple extension later. C is used to hold the length of the longest subsequence. Definition of Longest...
Simulator needed to test performance of algorithms extensions/modifications for critical operations Algorithms needed for 3G base-band base-station implementation Equalization FFT Viterbi decoding Channel estimation Multiuser detection Viterbi/Turbo decoding Multiple antennas Long spreading codes Space-Time codes The IMAGINE architecture and ...
AFTER HER HUSBAND'S DEATH, RUTH CHOSE TO SERVE NAOMI "And Ruth said, Intreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee: for whither thou goest, ... Young women will strive to prepare for their role as...
Taking Your Pulse . Use your index and middle finger to gently press, under your jaw and on the side of your throat. We will count our heart-beats for 30 seconds and then multiple by 2 to get our resting...
Introduction to Science and Measurement . Ms. Pici, 2016-2017. Name the following equipment . What is Science. Science is the study of …. Physical Science is a combination of physics and chemistry . Technology is using science to make products...
Haiti became the the first black republic in the world before any other african nation. 1st saint pierre, 2nd en caraibe, la guadeloupe la martinique. 3rd.La Guyane francaise 4th mayotte 5th reunion 6th la Nouvelle Caledonie 7th Wallis et futuna...
Top Row, Left to Right: Richard Devore, Southeast Alabama Regional and Planning Development Commission, AL Melanie Iverson, Armstrong County Area Agency on Aging, PA Melody Wilson, East Alabama Regional Development & Planning Commission, AL Natasha Pender, Centralina Council of Governments,...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!