The Warlord decade - Weebly

The Warlord decade - Weebly

THE WARLORD DECADE 1917-1927 RECAP Qing Dynasty (Manchu Dynasty) 1644-1912 Empress Cixi powerful ruling regent. Dragon lady perception is questioned by recent Historians who emphasise her situation as a woman in a mans world.

International scramble for China Britain, Germany, France, Russia, Japan and the US. 100 days reforms Emperor Guangxu, ended in house arrest Boxer Uprising murder of all Christians and westerners in certain provinces. China is humiliated as foreign powers take over. Railways recovery movement 1911 revolution Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) and Yuan Shikai THE NEW REPUBLIC 29th December 1911 Republic of China proclaimed with a Provisional

Government. 1st January 1912 Sun Yixian Provisional President 12th Feb 1912 - PuYi abdicates 10th March - Yuan Shikai becomes President of Republic of China August 1912 the Tongmenghui combines with 4 other smaller political/revolutionary parties to become the Guomindang (GMD or Nationalists) Jan 1913 Political elections see GMD gain majority seats. February 1914 parliaments replaced with state councils Yuan dictatorship 15th January 1915 - Japanese 21 demands, Day of Shame

1st January 1916 Yuan Shikai becomes Emperor YUAN SHIKAI DIES On the 6th of June 1916 Yuan died suddenly and left China without a strong powerful leader. For all his faults, Yuan Shikai held the nation together a considerable achievement given the size and ethnic diversity of China. When he died regional tensions resurfaced, fragmenting China into area controlled by provincial warlords.

(Ryan) WARLORDISM COUNTRY IN CHAOS Warlords fought amongst themselves for powerwithout any sense of logic or reason. (Hsu) Pu-Yi was restored as Emperor for 12 days Sun Yixian established a military government in Guangzhou in 1917 and later on the 2nd of April 1921 established a Republican Government (elaboration on next slide)

THE UNITED FRONT After Yuan Shikais death, Sun returned to China. He was elected Grand Marshal of a southern military government in September 1917. He allied himself with a number of the southern warlords. This government was not recognised and factional infighting made it weak. It fell apart but in May 1921 Sun tried again, this time with military backing. Sun dreamed of marching an army north to re-establish a republic, but the military were not strong and it failed again.

In 1922, Sun met with the Comintern and by 1924, a United Front was established with the Communist Party. THE NEW CULTURE MOVEMENT 1914-1918 New cultural identity for China Headed by young intellectuals and backed by students who were more critically minded Questioning of old ways criticising Confucian values Discussion of new ideas (Nationalism, womens rights, Marxism, democracy etc)

Looking for a new national identity and the establishment of new Chinese culture. Intellectually and socially one of the most exciting times in Chinese History (Mitter) MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT Treaty of Versailles terms announced Mass outrage at Beijing government Day of Shame protests brought forward to the 4th of May

Wide spread urban anti-imperialist sentiment. Broad based, patriotic movement ProChina Intellectual Revolution Enter Mao Saving the nation GUOMINDANG (KUOMINTANG) GMD/KMT

Started by Sun Yixian later led by Jiang Jieshi Began as the Tongmenghui revolutionary party 1912 became the Nationalist Party GMD Based on the Three Principles of the People. Popular and had a broad based membership (Historian - Li) Gained assistance (financial and advisory) from the Soviet Union United with the Communist Party in 1923-24 CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY - CCP

July 1921 First National Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. Chen Duxiu was the first Secretary General an orthodox Marxist who placed urban workers over Peasants. He believed, like Lenin in a elite party that would develop a revolutionary consciousness in the Proletariat. Comintern in Moscow held sway because they funded the Chinese. BUT China was not sufficiently industrialised nor did they have the proletariat numbers. Communists planned to use the GMDs organisation until the time

was right for a full CCP take over of China. In 1927 Mao developed his ideas of a Peasant Revolution into a DEATH OF SUN YAT-SEN 12th March 1925 Sun Yatsen dies of liver cancer Buried as a revolutionary hero. Death destabilised the fragile union that Sun had kept together in the GMD

Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) ended up taking leadership of the GMD 30TH MAY INCIDENT 1925 Nationalist feeling grow Workers strike at a Japanese Mill in Shanghai. They are arrested by British soldiers. Students protest and are gunned down. Hatred followed

Boycott of all foreign goods, especially from Hong Kong. NORTHERN EXPEDITION Jiang Jieshi uses growing nationalist feelings to launch a Northern Expedition against the warlords, in an effort to unite China under one government. 1st July 1926 Sun dream of a Northern Expedition is announced The expedition was Communist led and Moscow controlled (Fitzgerald) 85,000 troops who were disciplined and professional Northern warlords and rulers were divided.

Over two years the Northern Expedition had many successes BUT the unification of the two major groups (GMD & CCP) was far from harmonious. WHITE TERROR Jiang makes deals with the Green Gang Pockmarked Hung and Big Ears Du In April GMD and CCP issue a statement claiming that their relationship was strong and that there was no plans to establish a communist uprising. In 1927 the GMD tried to lesson Jiang Jieshis power.

The time had come to take control. SHANGHAI MASSACRE 12th April 1927 Big Ears Du and 2000 armed militia (who had assistance from the French Consul General) started the massacre just before dawn. 5000-10,000 Communists and Unionists were killed in Shanghai on that day. Violence spread to other areas and hundreds of thousands were killed Jiang was expelled from the GMD but he didnt care. He had the military

and power. It was an orgy of counter-revolutionary violence (Meisner) GMD AND THE CCP SPLIT On the 15th of July the two parties split and the story of the Revolution now becomes on of Nationalists Vs Communists. Borodin, the soviet advisor to China at the time said: the Guomingdang is like a toilet which, however often you flush it, still stinks. The GMD were still considered the Nationalist Government of China

at this time, and the Northern Expedition continued. They suffered from increasing tension among factions and Jiang was asked back as their leader in early 1928. By October he was the Chairman and the GMD was being recognised internationally.

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