8 February 2010 THE RISE AND FALL OF ROME LECTURE OUTLINE Origins of Rome Life in the Republic
Greek Influence Etruscan Influence Class Divisions Expansion Hellenistic Values Ladder of Offices
Plebeian Recourse Italy Conquest of Mediterranean Greek and Roman Gods Tolerance and Expansion Religious Hierarchy The Age of Conquest Politics in Rome
Social Order Morality Family and Gender Religion Monarchy to Republic Myth Geography Rome Begins to Grow
Punic Wars Consequences of Empire ROMAN TIMELINE 753-509 B.C.E. Monarchy 509-287 B.C.E. Early Republic 287-133 B.C.E. Middle Republic
264-146 B.C.E. Punic Wars 146 B.C.E. Rome destroys Carthage and Corinth 133-31 B.C.E. Late republic 449 B.C.E. Law of the Twelve Tables 44 B.C.E. Caesar Assassinated 31 B.C.E. The Empire ORIGINS OF ROME: 753-509 B.C.E. 21 April 753 B.C.E.: Mythic Romulus founds Rome
1000 B.C.E. Rome located in Latium large village 15 miles inland on Tiber Access to sea Naturally protected SEVENTH CENTURY B.C.E. ROME BEGINS TO GROW
Why does Rome develop? Greek influence from South Magna Graecia Etruscans in the north Brilliant, wealthy,
warlike Lucius Tarquinius Priscus FROM MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC 509 B.C.E. 290 B.C.E. the Romans overthrew the king and established a republic Class patron-client Expansion of territory Romanization
Hellenistic values Lucius Junius THE POLITICAL ORDER IN ROME Ladder of Offices Military Service Quaestor
Aediles Praetor Consul Plebeian Response: Tribunes How is the Roman political system different from the Athenian system? POLITICS IN THE REPUBLIC The Constitution was mix of tradition, custom and written law Uneven distribution of power:
Patricians versus the plebeians Senate at the center of politics 471 B.C.E. concilium plebis THE STRUGGLE FOR THE ORDERS The Struggle for the Orders = conflict over the right to power Romes need for plebeian soldiers led to reforms Lex Canuleia The Law of Twelve Tables Lex Hortensia
LIFE IN THE REPUBLIC Social Order Mos maiorum way of the elders Patron and Client Slaveholder and enslaved Morality
Family and Gender Patria potestas Marriage & womens rights Children and education LIFE IN THE REPUBLIC Religion
Importation of many Greek Gods Jupiter Zeus Minerva Athena Goddess of Warriors, wisdom Juno Hera Queen of the Gods Eternal Flame of Vesta Hestia Goddess of the Hearth Religious Tolerance and Expansion
Elected Religious Hierarchy THE AGE OF CONQUEST, 5TH-2ND CEN. B.C.E. Rome conquers Italian peninsula Defeats Etruscans 396 B.C.E. From 282 146 B.C.E. Romans conquer the Mediterranean
First Punic War (264-261 B.C.E.) Second Punic War (218202 B.C.E. Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.E.) THE PROBLEM OF EMPIRE Imperial expansion impacts Roman society in distinct ways crippled its economy Culture for Romes Elite Generals gained fame and power
TIBERIUS AND GAIUS GRACCHUS, 133-121B.C.E. The Gracchi are tribunes who advocate reform Distribute public lands to proletarians, or landless Romans Devote gifts to equip new farms
Creation of equites Factions form: populares optimates GAIUS MARIUS, 107-100 B.C.E. The New Man Ability over ancestry
Breaking of tradition: six terms as Consul Military Reform: proletarians as soldiers Client/Patron applied to Commander/Soldier LUCIUS CORNELIUS SULLA, 91-78 B.C.E. Social War, 91-87 B.C.E. Seeks glory proscription Dictator with a
government of the best people 3 Lessons From Sulla? Military Politics Social values GNAEUS POMPEY & THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE, 70-53 B.C.E. Pompey Magnus, a New Man
Defeat of Spartacus Consul, 70 B.C.E. Secures Roman control of Mediterranean Defies tradition how? Good for urban poor and merchant classes Secures Rome in the east: Syria and Judea
THE RISE AND FALL OF JULIUS CAESAR, 60-44 B.C.E. Caesar, Consul 59 B.C.E. Defiance of Senates command Strong support from the masses Alliance with Egypt & Cleopatra VII King of a Republic
Cancellation of debts Caps on subsidies Public works Extension of citizenship and Senate Clemency for enemies Morte di Giulio Cesare (Death of Julius Caesar) by Vincenzo Camuccini THE END OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC The Death of Caesar is intended to take Rome back to the mos maiorum
Incites factional contest for power Highlights the transformation of Romes hierarchy Demonstrates emergence of individual over community OUTLINE From Republic to Principate, 4427 B.C.E. Augustuss Restoration, 27 B.C.E.14 C.E. Augustan Rome
Making Monarchy Permanent, 14180 C.E. Nero & Caligula Tiberius & Claudius Vespasian and the Five Good Emperors Life in the Golden Age, 96180 C.E. Octavian/Augustus
Octavian used the guise of republican restoration, constitutional monarchy, princeps civitatis retains bureaucracy Octavian assumes power over important civil and religious offices He creates the emperorship
Expansion and the Pax Romana Octavian Augustus centrally organized the empires administration a cult of Rome Rome expanded north and west into Europe This period of stability leads to literary culture Virgil, Livy, Ovid, Cicero,
etc. THE GOLDEN AGE, 44 B.C.E. TO 284 C.E. The emperors that followed Augustus were a diverse lot Caligula and Nero Tiberius and Claudius Later emperors
Vespasian and the five good emperors, including Hadrian Imperial dynasties became full-blown monarchies soldiers taken from provinces population of Rome (the city) grew from 500,000 to 700,000 LIFE IN THE GOLDEN AGE
The emperors tried to end anger over hunger and poverty Empire is economically prosperous Rome developed contact with Mesopotamia, Iran, India and indirectly China LIFE IN THE GOLDEN AGE Public entertainment
Violent For the masses Speech-making became less important End of rhetoric? New forms in literature,
history, grammar and the arts - generally less idealized Women lose public face slavery became the foundation for Roman labor Expanded empire led to an expanded citizenry THE END OF THE PAX ROMANA Civil wars and invasion ensued in the third century C.E. 235 to 284 C.E.
Barbarian threat collapse of order Debasement of coinage Diocletian Reforms Formation of the dominate Emphasis on supreme power Autocracy
Reduction of elite power Image of majesty Strict legal control Creation of the Tetrarchy Aimed to prevent civil war through system of partnership and loyalty ROME DECAYS Emperors attempted
reforms, but no reform could thwart the decline Constantine Makes Christianity the religion of the empire Edict of Milan, 313 moves the capital from Rome to Constantinople (the Greek city of
Byzantium) Division ensued, including rival claims to Roman imperial seats, and the eastern and western portions of Rome widened their divide GERMANIC MIGRATIONS Migrations of various German tribes helped contribute significantly to Roman decline In 370s Huns, later Visigoths, migrate into Italian
peninsula Fourth and Fifth Centuries Roman World, c. 526 THE FALL OF ROME What caused the end of the Roman empire? Did it decline? What is its legacy?
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