The Properties of Matter - Council Rock School District

The Properties of Matter - Council Rock School District

The Properties of Matter Chapter 2 Problem Solving Scientists will often use an objects properties to best help them solve a problem Section 1: What is Matter? Objectives Define and describe the two properties of all matter Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass

Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method Compare and contrast mass and weight Explain the relationship between mass and inertia Section 1: What is Matter? We are made of matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space

Section 1: What is Matter? Is it matter? Toaster Bowl of soup Steam Sound Dust Air Heat Flag Bacteria Light

Section 1: What is Matter? How much space does matter take up? It depends We call it volume Volume is the amount of space taken up, or occupied, by an object Section 1: What is Matter? Liquid volume Often use units like the Liter (L) and milliliter (mL) 1000 mL = 1 L

Use a graduated cylinder to measure Read along meniscus bottom Meniscus is a curve at a liquids surface Section 1: What is Matter? Volume of solids Regular shapeuse a formula

VOLUME = LENGTH X WIDTH X HEIGHT Irregular shapewater displacement method Measure water volume Measure new volume with object Section 1: What is Matter? How will we do math problems in physical science? 4 steps 1.

2. 3. 4. Write the formula Identify the variables Put numbers in equation Solve for the answer, circle answer Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm?

Step 1: Write the formula V= L x W x H Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 2: Identify the variables 5 cm 1 cm

2 cm Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation V= 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a

box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V= 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm V= 10 cm3 NO NAKED NUMBERS!! Section 1: What is Matter? Matter and Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object

It is the same everywhere in the universe! Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object The more mass, the more weight Varies by its location in the universe Section 1: What is Matter? Differences between Mass and Weight Mass Weight

Measure of amount of matter in an object Measure of the gravitation force on an object Always constant for an object no matter where it is Varies depending on

where the object is on the Earth or the universe Measured using a balance (shown below) Measured using a spring scale (shown at right) Expressed in kilograms (kg), grams (g), and

milligrams (mg) Expressed in newtons (N) Section 1: What is Matter? Inertia Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion The more mass an item has, the more inertia it will have Section 1: What is Matter?

Section Review Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1. Define and describe the two properties of all matter 2. Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass 3. Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula 4. Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method 5. Compare and contrast mass and weight 6. Explain the relationship between mass and inertia

Section 2: Physical Properties Objectives Identify six examples of physical properties of matter Describe how density is used to identify substances Calculate density using a formula List examples of physical changes Explain what happens to matter during a physical change Section 2: Physical Properties QUESTIONS

QUESTIONS Lets play 20 Questions! Section 2: Physical Properties Physical properties are great for the game Physical properties are great for describing matter Physical properties are traits that can be observed or measured without changing the matters identity

Section 2: Physical Properties Thermal conductivity is the rate at which a substance transfers heat. Plastic foam is a poor conductor Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. Flavored drink mix dissolves in water.

State is the physical form of the substance, such as solid, liquid, or gas. Ice is water in the solid state Ductility is the ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire. Copper is often used to make wiring because it is so ductile Density is the mass per unit volume of a

substance. Lead is very dense, so it makes a good sinker for a fishing line Malleability is the ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into thin sheets. Aluminum can be rolled into sheets to make foil Section 2: Physical Properties Density

Describes the relationship between mass and volume Density is the amount of matter in a given amount of space, or volume PING PONG 2 grams GOLF 46 grams Section 2: Physical Properties Solving for Density (d) DENSITY = MASS

VOLUME Densities of Common Substances Density can help identify substances DENSITY (g/cm ) SUBSTANCE DENSITY (g/cm ) SUBSTANCE 3 3

Helium (gas) 0.00001663 Zinc (solid) 7.13 Oxygen (gas) 0.001331

Silver (solid) 10.50 Water (liquid) 1.00 Lead (solid) 11.35 Pyrite (solid)

5.02 Mercury (liquid) 13.55 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 1: Write the formula DENSITY = MASS

VOLUME Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 2: Identify the variables 25 g 10 cm3 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an

object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation DENSITY = 25 g 10 cm3 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 4: Solve and circle answer

= 25 g 10 cm3 DENSITY Density= 2.5 g/ cm3 NO NAKED

NUMBERS! Section 2: Physical Properties The formula triangle Cover up the piece you want to solve for D x V Find the new equation M M =

D V = Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the balls volume? Step 1: Write the formula V= M D

Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the balls volume? Step 2: Identify thegvariables 454 11.35 3 g/cm Densities of Common Substances SUBSTANCE

DENSITY (g/cm3) SUBSTANCE DENSITY (g/cm3) Helium (gas) 0.00001663

Zinc (solid) 7.13 Oxygen (gas) 0.001331 Silver (solid) 10.50 Water (liquid)

1.00 Lead (solid) 11.35 Pyrite (solid) 5.02 Mercury

13.55 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the balls volume? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation V= 454 g 11.35 3 g/cm

Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the balls volume? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V= 454 g 11.35 g/cm3 V= 40 cm 3 NO

NAKED NUMBER Section 2: Physical Properties Physical Changes do not form new substances A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substances Section 2: Physical Properties Examples of physical changes Freezing water

Sanding wood Dissolve sugar in water Melting butter Section 2: Physical Properties Matter and physical changes Physical changes to not change the identity of the matter involved

Ice is still water Sawdust is still wood Melted butter is still butter Shaped clay is still clay Cut paper is still paper Section 2: Physical Properties Section Review Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1. Identify six examples of physical properties of matter 2. Describe how density is used to identify substances

3. Calculate density using a formula 4. List examples of physical changes 5. Explain what happens to matter during a physical change Section 3: Chemical Properties Objectives Describe two examples of chemical properties Explain the importance of characteristic properties Explain what happens during a chemical change

Distinguish between physical and chemical changes Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical properties A chemical property describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical Properties Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn

Reactivity is the ability of two or more substances to combine to form one or more new substances Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical Property Chemical Property Shape Bending an iron nail will change its shape

Reactivity An iron nail can react with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide (rust) State Rubbing alcohol is a clear liquid at room temperature Flammability Rubbing alcohol is able to burn easily Physical versus Chemical properties Section 3: Chemical Properties

Physical versus Chemical properties How do you tell? Chemicalsubstance changes into something new by observing property Physicaldoes not change identity by observing property Section 3: Chemical Properties Characteristic Properties Characteristic properties are the properties that are most useful in identifying a substance Do not change regardless of sample size

Density, solubility, flammability, reactivity How do I know what is in this beaker???? Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical Changes and New Substances A chemical change is when one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties Not the same as a chemical property! Section 3: Chemical Properties

How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Change in color or odor Section 3: Chemical Properties How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Formation of a gas (fizzing and foaming) Section 3: Chemical Properties How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Sound or light being given off

Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Change in texture Grinding baking soda into a fine, powdery substance is a physical change Reactivity with Vinegar Gas

bubbles are produced when vinegar is poured into baking soda Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical versus Chemical Changes How do I know which is which? DID THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHANGE? If yes, its chemical If no, its physical

Section 3: Chemical Properties Can changes be reversed? Sometimes! Ice water ice again Eggfried egg REVERSIBLE IRREVERSIBLE Section 3: Chemical Properties Section Review

Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1. Describe two examples of chemical properties 2. Explain the importance of characteristic properties 3. Explain what happens during a chemical change 4. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes

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