The Legal Basis of Planning

The Legal Basis of Planning

Professor Habib Alshuwaikaht Introduction The design of cities has been conscious task of many throughout history. In 1950s the term urban designer emerged a profession with a separate university degree. Urban designers assume that in spite of the vast scale and complexity, cities can be designed and their growth shaped and directed. An early and major example is the work of Baron Haussmann from 1855-1868 in Paris. Haussmanns works in Paris included: new pattern of boulevards, the facades of buildings, the flow of

traffic, the skyline and the proportion of space, Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 2 What is Urban Design? Urban design falls between the professions of planning and architecture. It deals with the large-scale organization and design of the city, with the massing and organization of buildings and the space between them, but not with the design of the individual buildings. Factors distinguish UD from AD: large scale; long

time frame; large number of variables; approaches and techniques. UD and planning have complementary roles but separate and distinct functions Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 3 The Urban Design Process The basic four phases: Analysis; Synthesis; Evaluation; Implementation Analysis: Gathering of basic information: land use;

population; transportation; natural system; topography ; and other relevant information for the specific intended project (residential, commercial,..) Visual Survey: is used as a tool by designers to communicate their perceptions of the structure and organization of a city or neighborhood to one another . Mental Map The Image of the City (Kevin Lynch 1960) Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 4 The Urban Design Process continued

Identifying of Hard and Soft Areas : helps the designers to know what parts of the city can accommodate growth and change and what parts are essentially fixed because they may be historical landmarks or cemetery Functional Analysis: examines the relationship of activities (in 3D) among the various land uses and the way that relate to circulation system. Synthesis: the data gathered and the analysis must be translated into proposals for action. Components of synthesis phase: evolution of concepts; development of schematic design proposals; followed by preliminary plans.

Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 5 The Urban Design Process continued Evaluation: how well the solutions fit the problem? And how readily the proposal can be implemented? Implementation: the strategy for actual financing and construction is devised. Once an urban design plan is developed, the principal tools through which it is

implemented are land-use control and capital expenditure. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 6 What is Good Urban Design? A list of important criteria for judging UD: Unity and coherence. Minimum conflict between pedestrian and vehicles. Protecting from rain, noise, wind and so on. Easy orientation for users. Compatibility of land use. Availability of places to rest, observe, and meet. Creation of a sense of security and pleasantness.

The design should not only look good but also functions well. It must consider factors beyond the purely physical. Theses include financial, political, psychological, and sociological considerations. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 7 The Neighborhood Concept The neighborhood is a central concept in UD. It is not an old concept 1920s Clarence Perry: the area that would contain a population (50006000) sufficient to supply the pupils (10001200) for one elementary school.

The neighborhood plan will provide for residences, a school, shopping facilities for frequent goods, playgrounds and perhaps small parks. The street pattern will serve the resident population but discourages through traffic. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 8 Replanning Suburbia: The Neotraditionalist new urbanism Andres Duany is the most exponent of the Neotraditionalist new urbanism.

Neotraditionalist argue that excessive dependence on automobile degraded the quality of life; pedestrian-unfriendly patterns. The Neotraditionalist advocate the mixing of uses and pedestrian-unfriendly streets. They rest much of their case on the market people will pay very high price for a fine-grained, pedestrian-unfriendly pattern. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 9 Edge City Edge city embodies no single design philosophy

and clear spokesperson such as Adres Duany for Neotraditionalist. Edge city is an evolving form of development based on a variety of economic forces and the understanding that developers and investors have of those factors. Has 5 million square feet or more of office space, 600000 square feet of retail space, more jobs than bedrooms, has it all jobs, shopping to entertainment Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 10

Visions of the City of the Future There are many concepts behind each an idea how city dwellers should respond to social and technological change. Examples: In Ville Radieuse, Le Corbusier envisioned high-rise residential towers and major roadways would link together sectors of the city (collective ownership). In contrast, Frank Llyod Wrights concept of Broad Acre City, each individual of family owned 1-arce lot. Homes and industries would be connected by major roadways. Wrights social and political philosophies were translated into the design proposals

(independences and autonomy of the individual. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 11 Ville Radieuse, Le Corbusier Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 12 The 1934 Broadacre City Model Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101

13 Visions of the City of the Future continued Other visionaries have suggested more radical approaches to structuring the future city. Palo Soleri: hyperstrucures with heights as great as the tallest skyscrapers but covering as much as several hundreds acres of ground. Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 14

The Shimizu TRY 2004 Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be about 14 times higher than the Great Pyramid at Giza, and would house 750,000 people Prof. Alshuwaikhat - KFUPM - CP101 15

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