The legacy of Rowntree Jonathan Bradshaw Yorkshire Philosophical Society Lecture Radical Statistics Society Priory St York 23 February 2013 Outline Legacy of Seebohm Rowntree
1899 study Impact on policy, ideas and social science Relevance today Is York typical on poverty and inequality No but. Limited local data on poverty and inequality Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree B. Seebohm Rowntree Poverty: A Study of Town Life 1901 The man: son of Joseph, Quaker, Liberal, 28. Manchester University food chemist. Motivated by
Booth Survey 1899, all 46,754 people in 11,560 working class households in York, short Q, no income schedule, one investigator! Concepts: Poverty threshold = minimum necessities for the maintenance of merely physical efficiency Primary (9.9%) and Secondary poverty (17.9%) Findings Cause of primary poverty: low wages (52%), large families (22%), death of breadwinner (16%), incapacity
(5%), un/under employmnent 5%) Life cycle of poverty Impact of Rowntree
First social science beyond description? Impact on research and social science British empirical tradition Excellent presentation writing, tables, charts, maps, case studies. Chapters on housing, health spatial analysis of heights and weights, education. Humane primary poverty line used as an heuristic device (JVW) Poverty not the fault of the poor, no distinction between the deserving and undeserving direct assault on ideology of the Poor Law and COS No recommendations - something must be done Impact on Lloyd George and Winston Churchill I have been reading a book which has fairly made my hair stand on end 1902 Liverpool Possible impact on Webbs Minority Report
Liberal Government reforms 1936 study impact on Beveridge 1955 eradication of poverty myth. Relevance today JRF and Trusts. Major York landlord/ social care provider. Research funder poverty/place/ageing York: Fairness Commission Living Wage Still studying poverty in similar ways thresholds, budget standards, household surveys, modes of presentation. Analysis prevalence, causal explanations, consequences Stark contrast to
Consultation on child poverty measurement IDS poverty=drugs, improvidence, 120,000 problem families RH Tawney 'Improve the character of individuals by all means - if you feel competent to do so, especially of those whose excessive incomes expose them to particular temptations' ('Poverty as an Industrial Problem', Inaugural lecture as Director of the Ratan Tata Foundation, LSE, 1913). Low wages, children, inadequate/non existent social benefits Many advances in
Concepts: Relative, income, resources, rates and gaps Method: Sampling, equivalence, deprivation, persistence York: ? A social science lab Having satisfied myself that the conditions of life obtaining in my native city of York were not exceptional, and that it might be taken as fairly representative of the conditions existing in many of not most of our provincial towns
No survey of poverty in York after 1955. Some follow up studies of descendants (Atkinson, Maynard, Trinder, Carr Hill) Huby et al (1999) review of evidence on living standards At the end of the 1990s, York might still be regarded as fairly representative of a provincial town. (p 1). York Fairness Commission evidence 2011 census York is growing 9.4%, 20-24. 85+ York looks unusually monochrome in terms of ethnicity (but Gary Craig). Census 2011 8.8% not white British 5.5% born outside EU. Students (poverty). Recently the local media were surprised to learn from the ONS that York has one of the lowest fertility rates of any local authority in England.
Highly qualified 13th nationally. Nothing notable on family structure etc Census 2001: Breadline Britain Index Census Townsend Poverty index York: index of deprivation quintile distribution of LSOAs 2010 York: Changes in LSOA ranks 2007-2010 York: Child well-being decile distribution LSOAs
York now probably not typical BUT Credit Union closed - Food Bank open Every loan shark has a high st. presence Dreaded ATOS ESA assessments. Welfare Benefits Unit appeals representation won 1million in five years. 330,000 in unclaimed DLA for children in a year Still a low wage city Living Wage evaluation House prices
17,600 (4,800 out of work) children on child tax credits excluding Family Element 24,400 (29%) households receiving means-tested benefits/tax credits in early 2012 Most non pensioner poor start paying 20% Council Tax next month. York households (benefit units) receiving means-tested benefits February 2012 York data on poverty and inequality? Is there a gap in local data on poverty and inequality? York Fairness Commission http:// www.yorkfairnesscommission.org.uk/assets/files/PDF/Findings%20and%20recommendations.pdf
York Child Poverty Needs Assessment http:// www.yor-ok.org.uk/Downloads/Child-Poverty/Child%20Poverty%20Needs%20Assessment%20Update%20November %202012.pdf Lots of spatial data. Individual/household? One final indicator
My net income before retirement= 872 per week Lone parent plus one child on Income Support= 133 per week
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