The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design)

The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design)

The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design) Text Chapter 6 Course Packet pages 87-95 The Learning Cycle Chapter 6 Constructivism 261-270 Link to prior

Knowledge (Review) (Anticipatory Set) 271-280 Objective or Purpose (Introduction) 281-282 Presentation (Teacher Input)

282-293 Teachers Role 270 Learner Response (Guided Practice) 293-304 Functional Application

(Independent Practice) 304-308 Closure or Summary Constructivism The process by which children acquire and organize information Associated with theorists: Piaget and Vygotsky Children develop intelligence not by

being told, but by building their own understandings Piaget Schemata gradually become more complex Happens through a sequence of adaptation 1. Assimilation 2. Disequilibrium 3. Accommodation Motivation comes from childrens drive to either assimilate into or accommodate schemata in response to new experiences in their environment

Constructivist Learning A problem-solving process by which learners are intrinsically driven to construct meaning from a new learning challenge Happens when the learners experiences are triggered or activated by the challenge of a new learning situation Teachers role is to create challenging situations for learners Cognitive vs. Social Constructivism

Cognitive The idea that learning occurs within each individual learner Social The idea that learning occurs when people work together to make sense out of their world Social Constructivism Centers on positive adult-student and student-student relationships

Teachers make available absorbing materials and intriguing situations Teachers engage students in activities and provide some sort of systematized instruction and intervention Vygotsky Believed that humans are different from animals because they make and use tools (physical and mental) Humans pass on knowledge and skills through language during verbal interactions Zones of Development

Zone of Actual Development: learning tasks are completed individually with no assistance Zone of Proximal Development: learning tasks are completed with just the right amount of assistance Scaffolding When teachers offer just the right amount of help for students as they attempt to bridge the gap between what they already know and what they need to learn Provides temporary support (cueing, questioning,

coaching, assistance) The Learning Cycle Learning cycle is a student-centered, problem solving teaching approach that creates conceptual change through social interactions Three major elements Exploration Concept/skill Development Concept/skill Application Lesson Design Menu

Appetizer (Exploration) Focus and Review Statement of Objective Main Course Dessert (Concept Development) (Concept Application) Teacher Input Presentation Guided Practice

Independent Practice Closure Exploration Phase Purpose Activate prior knowledge Draw students into the lesson Focus students attention on task with clear purpose Activating prior knowledge Goal is to establish a connection between what they know and the new information (advanced organizers,

anticipatory set, external mediators) External Mediator Class discussion Provocative objects Graphic outlines of to be covered material Discussion Sequence

Existing knowledge Thought association Rapid recognition Quick lesson review Open discussion Graphic Organizers

Bubble trees Prediction charts K-W-L Venn Diagrams Cycles Thinking Maps (see Course Packet p. 95) Establishing a Clear Purpose Children ask: Why is this important?

Knowing what is expected is important Must be linked to prior knowledge and lessons Generally comes last during introductory sequence Focuses student attention The Development Phase This is the main learning experience This is III. Teacher Input or Presentation Key Questions: What basic concepts or skills are to be taught?

What learning materials should be used? How can the teacher help students construct key concepts and skills? What strategies can be used to ensure that students understand and master the skill? Teaching the Concept 1 Provide Information Explain the concept Define the concept

Provide examples of the concept Model 2 Check for understanding Pose key questions Ask students to explain concept/definition in their own words Encourage students to generate their own examples Concepts and Examples Community Wilmington Washington, DC

Tokyo Mountain Mt. Everest Mt. Fuji Grandfather Mountain Island Hawaii Cuba Wrightsville Beach Justice

Taking turns Writing down rules Applying rules equally to everyone Factstorming Process of finding relevant details associated with a concept Fact Fact Fact

Concept Fact Fact Fact Task Analysis Skills are mental or physical operations having a specific set of actions that are developed through practice Task analysis: process of identifying

component parts of skills and sequencing the steps Modeling of skills is highly effective and efficient Materials for Instruction Bruners three level of learning Enactive

Iconic Symbolic Select materials that represent a balance these three levels of Assisting students as they construct key concepts Use of language-based strategies General instructional conversations Small group instructional conversations Graphic organizers

Conceptual Sequential Cyclical Hierarchical Questioning Strategies Two types of questions: Purposes? Closed Open-ended

Art of Questioning (Dewey) p. 297 Framing questions and Wait time Ask question Pause 3 5 seconds Call on someone to respond Pause 3 5 more seconds to give think time Concept/Skill Application Phase

Opportunity to apply and practice new skill or concept through special projects or independent activities Two parts: Guided Practice Independent Practice or Functional Application Should result in constructing deeper meaning Guided Practice Many kinds of practice for new learning

Use of concept mapping/graphic organizers Conceptual Sequential Cyclical Hierarchical Thinking Maps

Independent Practice Independent Activities (different activity from Guided Practice!) Focus on creativity and choice Provide for extension, application, relevance, and usefulness Closure Involves summarizing, sharing, reviewing, extending the concept May provide transition to new lesson or learning

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