The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1

The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1

The Brain Techniques to Study the Brain A brain lesion experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction. Hubel (1990)

1 Clinical Observation Clinical observations have shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being catalogued. Tom Landers/ Boston Globe

2 Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brains surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. AJ Photo/ Photo Researchers, Inc. 3

PET Scan Courtesy of National Brookhaven National Laboratories PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a

radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task. 4 MRI Scan MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue. Top images show ventricular enlargement in a schizophrenic patient. Bottom image (fMRI)

shows brain regions when a participants Both photos from Daniel Weinberger, M.D., CBDB, NIMH James Salzano/ Salzano Photo Lucy Reading/ Lucy Illustrations 5

Brain Stem The Medulla [muh-DULuh] is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing. Reticular Formation is a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in

controlling arousal. 6 Brain Stem The Thalamus [THALuh-muss] is the brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and

transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. 7 Cerebellum The little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem. It

helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance. 8 The Limbic System The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural

structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

9 Amygdala The Amygdala [ah-MIGdah-la] consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger.

10 Hypothalamus The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and

control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. 11 Reward Center Sanjiv Talwar, SUNY Downstate

Rats cross an electrified grid for selfstimulation when electrodes are placed in the reward (hypothalamus) center (top picture). When the limbic system is manipulated, a rat will navigate fields or climb up a tree (bottom

picture). 12 13 Structure of the Cortex 14 Phineas Gage

15 Functions of the Cortex The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. 16

Auditory Function fMRI scan shows the auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate. 17

Association Areas More intelligent animals have increased uncommitted or association areas of the cortex. 18 Aphasia language impairment

19 Splitting the Brain A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them. Martin M. Rother Courtesy of Terence Williams, University of Iowa

Corpus Callosum 20 21 Divided Consciousness 22

Non-Split Brains People with intact brains also show leftright hemispheric differences in mental abilities. A number of brain scan studies show normal individuals engage their right brain when completing a perceptual task and their left brain when carrying out a linguistic task. 23

Brain Organization & Handedness Is handedness inherited? Yes. Archival and historic studies, as well as modern medical studies, show that the right hand is preferred. This suggests genes and/or prenatal factors influence handedness. 24

Being left handed is difficult in a righthanded world. 25 Is it OK to be Left Handed? The percentage of left-handed individuals decreases sharply in samples of older people (Coren, 1993).


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