The Fourth Conference of the European Network on Social ...
THE FOURTH CONFERENCE OF THE EUROPEAN NETWORK ON SOCIAL ONTOLOGY (ENSO IV) PALERMO, 24 26 | 9 | 2015 INSTITUTIONAL ONTOLOGY AS AN ONTOLOGY OF TYPES A Legisign is a law that is a Sign . Nor would the Replica be significant if it were not for the law which renders it so. Charles Sanders PEIRCE Lorenzo PASSERINI GLAZEL Universit di Milano Bicocca [email protected] INSTITUTIONAL ONTOLOGY AS AN ONTOLOGY OF TYPES 1. EIDOGRAPHIC PREDICATES VS. IDIOGRAPHIC PREDICATES 2. PROPERTIES BEING TRANSMITTED: AN ASYMMETRY BETWEEN EIDOGRAPHIC AND IDIOGRAPHIC PREDICATES
3. TWO FORMS OF ATYPICALITY: PRIVATIVE ATYPICALITY VS. NEGATIVE ATYPICALITY 4. EXTRINSIC EFFECTS OF NON-INSTITUTIONAL ACTS VS. INTRINSIC EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL ACTS 5. ANALOGICAL TYPES VS. KATALOGICAL TYPES 1. EIDOGRAPHIC PREDICATES VS. IDIOGRAPHIC PREDICATES 1. Eidographic predicates 1 vs. idiographic predicates EIDOGRAPHIC PREDICATES IDIOGRAPHIC2 PREDICATES 1. Dog is mans best friend.
3. In the game of rugby, a try is worth five points. 2. His dog Gilbert is his best friend. 4. Goromarus try in South Africa v. Japan match on last Saturday turned the tide of the game. 6. Andrea and Francescas marriage took place on a bright sunny day, September 29th, 2012. 5. According to Italian law, in the absence of a contrary stipulation, from marriage derives the
community of property between the spouses. The faithful dog - why should I strive to speak his merits, while they live in every breast, and man's best friend does often at his heels attend. (The New-York Literary Journal, volume 4, 1821) Cfr. Amedeo Giovanni CONTE (*1924) 2 Cfr. Wilhelm WINDELBAND (18481915) 1 2 of 20 1. Eidographic predicates vs. idiographic predicates 3 of 20 TYPE VS. TOKEN PARADIGM In [a] sense of the word word, there is but one word the in the English language; and it is impossible that this word should lie visibly on a page or be heard in any voice, for the reason that it is not a Single thing or Single event. It does not exist; it only determines things that do exist. Such a definitely significant Form, I propose to term a Type.
(Ch. S. PEIRCE 1960, 4.537, vol. IV, 423) Charles Sanders PEIRCE (1839-1914) A single event which happens once and whose identity is limited to that one happening or a Single object or thing which is in some single place at any one instant of time, such event or thing being significant only as occurring just when and where it does, such as this or that word on a single line of a single page of a single copy of a book, I will venture to call a Token. (Ch. S. PEIRCE 1960, 4.537, vol. IV, 423) 1. Eidographic predicates vs. idiographic predicates WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTIC CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH WE POSTULATE A TYPE? A very important set of circumstances in which we postulate types  is where we can correlate a class of particulars with a piece of human invention: these particulars may then be regarded as tokens of a certain type. (R. Wollheim, Art and Its Object, 1968, p. 94) Richard Arthur
WOLLHEIM (19232003) Class: e.g. the class of small objects. Universal: e.g. smallness. Type: e.g. the Union Jack. 4 of 20 2. PROPERTIES BEING TRANSMITTED: AN ASYMMETRY BETWEEN EIDOGRAPHIC AND IDIOGRAPHIC PREDICATES 2. Properties being transmitted: an asymmetry between eidographic and idiographic predicates6 of 20 TYPE
(Battle-scarred) TOKEN The type Union Jack cannot get battle-scarred (the only one surviving from Trafalgar battle, sold for 384,000 in 2009) 2. Properties being transmitted: an asymmetry between eidographic and idiographic predicates7 of 20 Eidographic predicates 3. In the game of rugby, a try is worth five points. 8*. In the game of rugby, a try turns the tide of the game. Idiographic predicates
7. Goromarus try in South Africa v. Japan match on last Saturday was worth five points. 4. Goromarus try in South Africa v. Japan match on last Saturday turned the tide of the game. 2. Properties being transmitted: an asymmetry between eidographic and idiographic predicates8 of 20 Eidographic predicates 5. According to Italian law, in the absence of a contrary stipulation, from marriage derives the community of property between the spouses. 10*. According to Italian law,
marriage takes place on a bright sunny day, September 29th, 2012. Idiographic predicates 9. From Andrea and Francescas marriage derived the community of property between them. 6. Andrea and Francescas marriage took place on a bright sunny day, September 29th, 2012. 3. TWO FORMS OF ATYPICALITY: PRIVATIVE ATYPICALITY VS. NEGATIVE ATYPICALITY 3. Two forms of atypicality: privative atypicality vs. negative atypicality 10 of 20
Privative atypicality Negative atypicality (steretic,1 scalar atypicality) (apophatic,1 binary atypicality) Deviation from a given type, partial non-conformity with reference to a type. Typelessness, irreducibleness to any existing type. On strsis vs. apphasis, cfr. ARISTOTLE (384322 BC), On Interpretation, Categories, Metaphysica, passim. 1 3. Two forms of atypicality: privative atypicality vs. negative atypicality Privative atypicality
The atypicality of a fake (counterfeit) 20 banknote. The atypicality of a lease contract in which something different from money is the consideration for lease. Privative atypicality presupposes the existence of a reference type. 11 of 20 Negative atypicality The atypicality of a 30 banknote. The atypicality of scoring a try in football (soccer).
The atypicality of castling in draughts: There is no castling in draughts (L. WITTGENSTEIN). Negative atypicality is determined by the nonexistence of a reference type. 3. Two forms of atypicality: privative atypicality vs. negative atypicality 12 of 20 NEGATIVE ATYPICALITY AND NORMATIVE Ontological NORMATIVE IMPOSSIBILITY IMPOSSIBILITY: NEGATIVE ATYPICALITY a normative impossibility which originates (not from the presence of an impeding norm, but) from the absence of specific rules constituting the type. (Cfr. Amedeo G. CONTE and Paolo DI LUCIA, 2012)
Czesaw ZNAMIEROWSKI (1225-1274) All these acts could not exist (that is, it wouldnt be possible to perform them), if the norm constituting them didnt exist. As well as it is impossible to capture a pawn without the laws of chess, it is impossible to donate a horse to anybody without the norms instituting legal property and the [type of] act of donation. Cz. ZNAMIEROWSKI,1924 4. EXTRINSIC EFFECTS OF NON-INSTITUTIONAL ACTS VS. INSTRINSIC EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL ACTS 4. Extrinsic effects of non-institutional acts vs. intrinsic effects of institutional acts Extrinsic (causal) effects of non-institutional acts Cutting down a tree
Intrinsic (non-causal) effects of institutional acts Marrying Institutional relationship of imputation,1 determined by the type Token-to-token causeeffect relationship, not determined by the type The tree falls down Running The community of property between the spouses is constituted Scoring a try Institutional relationship of imputation, determined by the type
Token-to-token causeeffect relationship, not determined by the type The body changes relatively quickly its position in space 14 of 20 The scorers team earns five points Cfr. Hans KELSEN (18811973) 1 4. Extrinsic effects of non-institutional acts vs. intrinsic effects of institutional acts 15 of 20 The type of an institutional act is the (necessary) CAUSA PRIMA of the effects of its tokens; every token is a (contingent) CAUSA SECUNDA of those effects: a CAUSA SECUNDA that triggers the effects determined by the type. Effectus plus dependet a causa prima quam a causa secunda, quia secunda causa non agit nisi in virtute primae causae. The effect depends more on the causa prima
than on a causa secunda, since a causa secunda acts only in virtue of the causa prima. (Thomas AQUINAS, Summa theologiae, Ia-IIa, q. 19, art. 4) THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) 5. ANALOGICAL TYPES VS. KATALOGICAL TYPES 5. Analogical types vs. katalogical types 17 of 20 ANALOGICAL TYPES KATALOGICAL1 TYPES An ANALOGICAL TYPE is obtained per analogiam and abstraction from the its tokens.
A token is obtained per katalogiam (instantiation) from its KATALOGICAL TYPE. Properties are transmitted in an UPWARD DIRECTION (an-basis), from the tokens to the type: the type MIRRORS the properties of its tokens. Properties are transmitted in a DOWNWARD DIRECTION (kata-basis) from the type to the tokens: the type DETERMINES the properties of its tokens. The tokens are the PRIUS, the type is the POSTERIUS. The type is the PRIUS, the tokens are the
POSTERIUS. Prevailing COGNITIVE function, and EPISTEMOLOGICAL import. Prevailing NORMATIVE function, and ONTOLOGICAL import. Cfr. Alexander GERKEN; Hans Urs VON BALTHASAR (1905-1988) 1 5. Analogical types vs. katalogical types 18 of 20 ANALOGICAL TYPES TYPE-TO-TOKENS DIRECTION OF FIT:1 an analogical type has to fit its tokens in order to be cognitively
correct. COGNITIVE EXPECTATIONS:2 in case of non-correspondence between the type and its tokens, it is the type that has to be revised. Cfr. THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274); G.E.M. ANSCOMBE (1919-2001); John R. SEARLE (*1932) 1 KATALOGICAL TYPES TOKENS-TO-TYPE DIRECTION OF FIT:1 a token has to fit its katalogical type in order to exist (to be ontologically correct) and to produce its effects.
NORMATIVE EXPECTATIONS:2 in case of non-correspondence between the type and a token, it is the token that has to be revised. 2 Cfr. Johan GALTUNG (*1930) 5. Analogical types vs. katalogical types 19 of 20 Veritas consistit in adaequatione intellectus et rei . Intellectus autem qui est causa rei, comparatur ad ipsam sicut regula et mensura, e converso autem est de intellectu qui accipit scientiam a rebus. Truth consists in a correspondence between the intellect and reality. Now an intellect that is a cause of the relevant real thing is related to it as a rule and measure, whereas the converse holds in the case of an intellect that takes its
scientific knowledge from the things. Quando igitur RES SUNT MENSURA ET REGULA INTELLECTUS, veritas consistit in hoc, quod intellectus adaequatur rei, ut in nobis accidit, ex eo enim quod res est vel non est, opinio nostra et oratio vera vel falsa est. Thus, when, as happens with us, the things are the measure and rule of the intellect, then truth consists in the intellects corresponding to the thing. For it is because reality is or is not such-andsuch that our opinions and statements are true or false. Sed quando INTELLECTUS EST REGULA VEL MENSURA RERUM, veritas consistit in hoc, quod res adaequantur intellectui, sicut dicitur artifex facere verum opus, quando concordat arti. By contrast, when the intellect is the rule or measure of the things, then truth consists in the things corresponding to
the intellect. So, for instance, the craftsman is said to produce a true work when that work agrees with his craft. (THOMAS AQUINAS, Summa theologiae, Ia-IIae, q. 19, art. 4) 5. Analogical types vs. katalogical types 20 of 20 ANALOGICAL TYPES KATALOGICAL TYPES The truth-canon for eidographic predicates referring to katalogical types is the type itself The truth-canon (criterion of truth) for eidographic predicates referring to analogical types is not type: it is the tokens NATURAL ONTOLOGY AS
AN ONTOLOGY OF TOKENS INSTITUTIONAL ONTOLOGY AS AN ONTOLOGY OF TYPES THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION [email protected]
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