The End of Communism AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 22 T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F W O R L D COMMUNISM 1917 - PRESENT General Failures of Communism Economic failures By late 1970s = communist economies showed no signs of catching up to more advanced capitalist countries Soviet economy = stagnant People had to wait in
long lines for consumer goods, which were poor in quality and declining in availability Citizens waiting in line for goods in the Soviet Union Photo = circa the late-1980s General Failures of Communism Moral Failures Many incidents invalidated communist claims to moral superiority over capitalism
The site of one of Cambodias killing fields Horrors of Stalins Terror and the gulag Maos Cultural Revolution Genocide in communist Cambodia Simultaneously = overall global political culture was more widely embracing democracy and human rights as the intended legacy of humankind China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party 1976 = death of Mao Zedong Successor = Deng Xiaoping Committed to fostering political
stability and economic growth Social and political reforms: Previously banned plays, operas, films, and translations of Western classics = allowed again Literature of the wounded released = exposed the suffering of the Cultural Revolution under Mao About 100,000 political prisoners released China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party Deng Xiaopings economic
reforms: Dismantled collectivized farms and returned to a system of small-scale private agriculture Managers of state enterprises given more authority and were encouraged to act like private owners Opened China to the world economy and welcomed foreign investment Local governments and private entrepreneurs created thousands of township and village enterprises that produced food, clothing,
building materials, and more China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party Positive Results of Economic Reforms Rapid and sustained economic growth Better diets Lower mortality rates Declining poverty Massive urban construction Surging exports New prosperity and increased standard of living for millions Negative Results of Economic Reforms
Corruption among Chinese officials Widening gap between the rich and the poor Urban overcrowding Pollution in the cities Periodic inflation Street crime Prostitution Gambling Drug addiction A criminal underworld China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party China had developed a capitalist economy, but Deng Xiaoping did NOT want to give up his
political monopoly or promote democracy Deng Xiaoping declared that democracy would lead to chaos and anarchy Tiananmen Square 1980s = a democracy movement led by university and secondary school students surfaced Deng ordered the brutal crushing of this demonstration in Beijings Tiananmen Square
Recorded by the media brought to television sets around the world The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country 1985 = Mikhail Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Soviet Union Gorbachev committed to tackling the countrys many problems Economic stagnation Growing black market
Public apathy Cynicism about the Communist Party The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Perestroika (Restructuring) = Gorbachevs economic program launched in 1987 Freed state enterprises from government regulation Permitted small-scale private
businesses Offered opportunities for private farming Began to welcome foreign investment Resistance to these reforms led Gorbachev to seek allies outside of his official circles The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Glasnost (Openness) = Gorbachevs policy of permitting a much wider range of cultural and intellectual freedoms in Soviet life Goal = to overcome the distrust that had grown between society
and the government The information that poured into the Soviet Union as a result of glasnost led to the mass movement towards democratization in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Democratization = involved the creation of a new parliament with real powers Would be chosen in
competitive elections 1989 elections = dozens of leading communists were rejected at the polls The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country In foreign affairs, Gorbachev moved to end the Cold War President Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985
Made cuts in Soviet military forces Engaged in arms control negotiations with the U.S. Refused to intervene as communist governments in Eastern Europe were overthrown The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Events in the Soviet Union influenced Eastern European nations if the USSR could practice glasnost and hold competitive elections, why couldnt they? Miracle Year of 1989 = massive demonstrations, last-minute efforts at reforms, the breach of the Berlin Wall, and the surfacing of new political groups all overwhelmed the unpopular
communist regimes of Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania Communism was swept away in Eastern Europe This success inspired nationalists and democrats in the Soviet Union brought the communist regime in the USSR to its end in 1991 The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country 1991 = the Soviet Union disintegrated into 15 new and independent states 1990 =
reunification of Germany The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country
Jointed appendages. Cephalothorax ... Pull of muscles against exoskeleton allows arthropods to move. All have jointed appendages. Reproduction. Terrestrial. Internal fertilization. Aquatic . Internal or external fertilization. Growth and Development.
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