The Effects of Organic Nutrients on Biological Oxygen Demand ...

The Effects of Organic Nutrients on Biological Oxygen Demand ...

The Effects of Organic Nutrients on Biological Oxygen Demand in the Hudson River Sierra Raglin, Nyack High School Sheean Haley, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Introduction Over the past decades, water pollution has been increasing as human activities and technology evolve. Eutrophication leads to the enrichment of an aquatic environment with nutrients from runoff and other contaminants. Micro algae, like phytoplankton, are the basis of marine ecosystems. If phytoplankton are harmed by human activities, the ecosystem as a whole can be damaged.

Introduction Cont. When phytoplankton experience eutrophication, the excess nutrients can accelerate algal blooms, and cause Harmful Algae Blooms, or Hypoxia. Hypoxia is a condition in which an aquatic environment is depleted of dissolved oxygen, which is necessary for all marine life. It has been shown that inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer and sewage runoff can lead to accelerated algae blooms and hypoxia. Accelerated phytoplankton growth can affect the environments Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): the environments need for dissolved oxygen. It has not been shown whether or not organic forms of nitrogen can lead to an increase in Biological Oxygen Demand, or hypoxia. Vocabulary

Phytoplankton - microscopic marine algae Hypoxia - reduced dissolved oxygen content detrimental to aerobic organisms Dead Zone - an area of the ocean depleted of dissolved oxygen Eutrophication - excessive richness of nutrients in a body of water due to anthropogenic or natural runoff Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) - the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms Review of Literature Found that under certain conditions, bacteria will find and utilize certain organic compound sources. Ulla Li Zweifel, Bo Norrman, ke Hagstrm, 1993

Nitrate can cause many different environmental issues, like Harmful Algae Blooms, by increasing phytoplankton growth. Tom Berman and Sara Chava, 1999 Purpose This study looks to understand the effects that anthropogenic nutrients have on marine ecosystems. This was done by investigating the effects of different organic nutrients on the natural phytoplankton (and bacterial) communities in the Hudson River and their potential role in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). Methodology Twelve 250 mL

water samples were collected from the Piermont Pier, in Piermont, New York. To simulate runoff, samples were treated with one of three nutrients solution, or no solution at all (control). Methodology Cont. The eight of the samples were treated as follows: Sample Name

Nutrient Condition Urea Light Urea Dark Lysine Light Lysine Dark Nitrate Light Nitrate Dark Control Light Control Dark 92L of Urea 92L of Urea 125L of Lysine 125L of Lysine 250 L of Nitrate 250 L of Nitrate

No Nutrient No Nutrient Exposed to the Light Shielded from Light Exposed to the Light Shielded from Light Exposed to the Light Shielded from Light Exposed to the Light Shielded from Light Methodology Cont. Urea (CH4N2O), and Lysine (C6H14N2O2 ) were chosen because they are organic forms of nitrogen that may be present in fertilizer or sewage runoff.

Nitrate (NO3) is an inorganic form a nitrogen that is present in fertilizer and sewage runoff. It was used to compare the effects of organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen. Methodology Cont. Three of the samples were labeled as T=0 (time equals zero), and were used to take initial measurements of the water at the beginning of each trial. The last sample was used to calibrate the DO and pH Probes. On the collection day, T=0 bottles were measured for DO, salinity, pH, temperature, percent saturation, and chlorophyll-. After, the eight treated samples were then incubated for 5 days. After the incubation period, these samples were each

measured, one-by-one for DO, pH, temperature, salinity, percent saturation, and chlorophyll-. Results Growth Rate of Dark Bottles d-1 G r o w t h R a t e

Growth Rate d-1 0 0 0 Co Ni 0 0

Nutrient stock Ly Figure 1 Growth rate is indicated by the green bar. The lysine growth rate is at -0.00226 . The Control bar is at 0.010786 . Urea is close behind control at 0.010703. Biological Oxygen Demand and Gross

Photosynthesis 3 2.5 2 1.5 BOD (mg L-1 d-1) 1 Gross PS (mg L-1 d-1) 0.5

0 Control Nitrate Urea Nutrient Stock Lysine Figure 2 Biological Oxygen Demand and gross photosynthesis of the Light bottles. The greatest biological oxygen demand was in the

Lysine bottle, due to the bacterial decomposition of the excess phytoplankton, and the absorption of the dissolved oxygen. Dissolved Oxygen Final (mg/L) Figure 3 Dissolved oxygen of Light bottles. The Lysine Light bottle had below 1 DO mg/L (0.2mg/indicating hypoxic conditions. Lack of dissolved oxygen can be an indication of lack of photosynthesis and the decomposition of

phytoplankton. 16 14 Dissolved Oxygen mg/L 12 10 8 6 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)

4 2 0 Control Nitrate Urea Nutrient Stock Lysine Results Nitrate had a higher photosynthetic rate than

respiration rate, indicating that there was an increase in dissolved oxygen. Urea had a slightly lower DO than Nitrate and Control. Lysine Dark had the lowest growth rate. BOD was highest in the Lysine bottles. Lysine had an average DO level of 0.2 mg/L Discussion BOD was greatest in the Lysine treated samples showing a decreased rate of photosynthesis and an increased rate of respiration. - The bacteria in the samples utilized the carbon in the lysine. Lysine is an amino acid and can increase the growth rate of bacteria, which in turn will increase respiration rate, absorption of DO, and the consumption of organic

matter. The Lysine Light had an average DO of 0.2 mg/L, indicating hypoxic conditions. This can show that there was a lack in photosynthesis and a high level of decomposition of phytoplankton. Discussion Cont. The final average of DO for Urea Light was 12.6 mg/ L. However BOD was slightly higher than the gross photosynthesis (only a 0.1 mg/L difference). Nitrate slightly increased BOD, but results show that nitrate did not cause hypoxia. Conclusion Through this study, it can be shown that organic nutrients, like lysine or other amino acids, greatly

increased the BOD of Hudson River water samples. Further research to test organic forms of nitrogen found in the Hudson River over a long period of time (weeks or months), is recommended. This experiment was conducted in February. Completion of this experiment during warmer months might result in more conclusive data. Conclusion cont. Many organisms are impacted negatively by anthropogenic nutrient input. Many organisms will die and the food web will be altered if issues, like eutrophication, are not prevented. It is crucial to understand the effects that different inorganic and organic nutrients, as well as human aquatic pollution, have on ecosystems, in order to

develop ways to prevent detrimental marine environment changes. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Ms. Foisy and Mrs. Kleinman, my science research teachers. I would also like to thank Sheean Haley of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute for helping me in developing and conducting my experiment. I would also like to thank Dr. Andrew Juhl of Columbia University for allowing us to use his laboratory and equipment.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Los Elementos Del Lenguaje Musical

    Los Elementos Del Lenguaje Musical

    También era muy habitual el uso de esta forma en las arias propias de las óperas Barrocas. Estas arias, con muy poco texto, pero muy virtuosas y dedicadas al lucimiento de la persona que canta, se llamaba arias da capo,...
  • Red River - Weebly

    Red River - Weebly

    1814 British officials banned the export of Pemmican from the Red River Valley for one year. Done out of fear that crops would fail and colonists would need all the pemmican to survive. Yet Métis made a living by selling...
  • Commentary: Choking Under Pressure? The Case of Elimination ...

    Commentary: Choking Under Pressure? The Case of Elimination ...

    Original data set 2542 games. 612 were removed due to the "best of Five" series no longer being a part of the NBA Playoffs. Format was removed in 2003 ... Commentary. Morgulev and Galily (2018) approached the pressure of playoff...
  •  I'll kill him though, he said. In all

    I'll kill him though, he said. In all

    Far to his left, in the northeast, beyond the valley and the terraced foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the two volcanoes, Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl, rose clear and magnificent into the sunset.Nearer, perhaps ten miles distant, and on a lower...
  • 3 major religions

    3 major religions

    The Jewish people came from Isaac and held the same beliefs (Judaism) or converted to Christianity. ... The leader: imam. Islam… Believes in the same God as Judaism and Christianity, but they call him, "Allah" ... The 3 major world...
  • Historical Background - LSU

    Historical Background - LSU

    Some instructions incorporate dedicated registers in their operations which allows for decreased code size, but it also restricts the use of the register set. Registers AX/EAX - Accumulator is used as a dedicated register by some arithmetic operation, and adjustment...
  • Behavioral Modeling: State Diagrams - Baruch College

    Behavioral Modeling: State Diagrams - Baruch College

    Why? Must capture interactions among objects in a chronological order - this represents how a use case is executed in a particular scenario; Use case realization. State diagrams. What? Show the possible interesting states that objects of a class can...
  • "Say it with Godiva"

    "Say it with Godiva"

    The Orchid Collection is a line of Bijoux jewelry fashioned to recreate the timeless beauty of the orchid flower. The collection uses diamonds and precious stones such as amethysts and rubies set in silver, platinum and rose gold The line...