The demographics of Computer Science

The demographics of Computer Science

The demographics of Computer Science (in HE) Edmund Robinson Queen Mary University of London What this talk is about What the data says about Computer Science generally. Spread across universities Diversity Ethnicity Gender Data from HESA Spread across universities Russell Group (24): research-intensive University Alliance (16): universities engaged in building the workforce of tomorrow Million Plus (23): the Association for Modern Universities Student Nos Russell Group University Alliance Million Plus Total Physical Sciences Maths Computer Engineer

Science -ing Total 33945 18235 13065 40130 402320 9130 3295 17025 19690 273035 2475 180 10765 6945

155560 68075 31885 69075 103505 1430150 Most Physics (50%) or Maths (57%) students are at Russell Group universities Nearly 40% of Engineering students are at Russell Group universities So a typical Physics, Maths, Engineering student comes from a Russell Group university, or similar. Most Physics or Maths students are at Russell Group universities Nearly 40% of Engineering students are at Russell Group universities So a typical Physics, Maths, Engineering student comes from a Russell Group university or similar. Only 19% of Computer Science students are at Russell Group universities. So a typical Computer Science student is not at one. Most Physics or Maths students are at Russell Group universities Nearly 40% of Engineering students are at Russell Group universities So a typical Physics, Maths, Engineering student comes from a Russell Group university. Only 19% of Computer Science students are at Russell Group universities. So a typical Computer Science student is not at one.

Student Nos Russell Group University Alliance Million Plus Total Physical Sciences Maths Computer Engineer Science -ing Total 33945 18235 13065 40130 402320 9130 3295 17025 19690

273035 2475 180 10765 6945 155560 68075 31885 69075 103505 1430150 CS is a small subject inside the Russell Group CS has 3.2% of Russell Group students Maths has 4.5% Physical Sciences 8.4% Engineering 10% Putting stuff together Is this number large or small, given number of students

Physicalin Million Plus and number students taking CS Student Nos ofSciences Maths overall? Russell Group University Alliance Million Plus Total Computer Engineer Science -ing Total 33945 18235 13065 40130 402320 9130

3295 17025 19690 273035 2475 180 10765 6945 155560 68075 31885 69075 103505 1430150 Likelihood ratio Probability of a Million Plus student taking CS is: P(CS|MP) (6.7%) Want to compare this with probability of random student taking CS: P(CS) (4.8%) Consider a form of likelihood ratio: P(CS|MP)/P(CS) Gives the factor by which Million Plus students preferentially choose

CS. (1.43) Likelihood ratio The factor by which Million Plus students preferentially choose CS. (1.43) Check the definition: this is also the factor by which CS students preferentially choose Million Plus universities (P(MP|CS)/P(MP)) Likelihood Ratio Physical Mathematics Computer Sciences Science Engineering Science Russell Group 1.77 2.03 0.67 1.38 University Alliance Million Plus 0.70

0.54 1.29 1.00 0.33 0.05 1.43 0.62 Likelihood Ratio Physical Mathematics Computer Sciences Science Engineering Science Russell Group 1.77 2.03 0.67

1.38 University Alliance Million Plus 0.70 0.54 1.29 1.00 0.33 0.05 1.43 0.62 Diversity Well get to the elephant in the room later Start with an elephant thats not in the room Ethnicity Computer Science is fairly ethnically diverse. Evidence: likelihood ratios for different ethnic groupings. Ethnicity - likelihood ratios for CS: P(CS|E)/P(CS)

Black or Black British Caribbean White 0.95 0.89 Black or Black Other Black British - African background 1.01 Asian or Asian Asian or Asian British British Other Asian Pakistani Bangladeshi background 1.42 1.43 1.44 0.97 Asian or Asian British - Indian 1.34

Other including mixed background Chinese 1.63 0.96 Ethnicity - likelihood ratios for CS: P(CS|E)/P(CS) Black or Black British Caribbean White 0.95 0.89 Black or Black Other Black British - African background 1.01 Asian or Asian Asian or Asian British British Other Asian Pakistani Bangladeshi background

1.42 1.43 1.44 0.97 Asian or Asian British - Indian 1.34 Other including mixed background Chinese 1.63 0.96 Ethnicity - likelihood ratios for CS: P(CS|E)/P(CS) Black or Black British Caribbean White 0.95 0.89

Black or Black Other Black British - African background 1.01 Asian or Asian Asian or Asian British British Other Asian Pakistani Bangladeshi background 1.42 1.43 1.44 0.97 Asian or Asian British - Indian 1.34 Other including mixed background Chinese 1.63

0.96 Ethnicity Students from many minority groups have a stronger preference for Computer Science than white students. This is particularly so for Asian (both South Asian and Chinese). Ethnicity Obvious exception is Black or Black British Caribbean The popular areas for these students are Mass Communications, Business and Law. In STEM: subjects allied to Medicine do well, as does Biology. CS gets 0.89, but Engineering gets 0.51. Ethnicity WARNING: this is base-lined on the students already coming into university. Gender Gender 15% of UK CS undergraduates are women 56% of UK undergraduates are women F M This makes gender the most serious diversity issue for CS By severity of underrepresentation By size of underrepresented population There are similar issues in Europe and the US (see eg figures from Informatics Europe).

Gender + Ethnicity Look at M/F ratio for each group. White F M Ratio F M Ratio Black or Black or Black Black British British - Caribbean African Other Black Background Asian or Asian Briitish Indian Asian or Asian Briitish Pakistani Asian or Asian Briitish - Bangladeshi

1.02% 9.41% 1.11% 10.21% 1.22% 9.96% 1.09% 9.80% 2.69% 10.55% 1.92% 12.40% 1.71% 12.45% 9.3 9.2 8.2 8.9 3.9 6.5

7.3 Chinese Unknown/not applicable 2.13% 8.88% Mixed Other Total 2.82% 13.23% Other Asian Background 2.24% 12.07% 1.11% 8.62% 1.60% 9.91% 1.33% 9.60%

4.7 5.4 4.2 7.8 6.2 7.2 White F M Ratio F M Ratio Black or Black or Black Black British British - Caribbean African Other Black Background Asian or Asian

Briitish Indian Asian or Asian Briitish Pakistani Asian or Asian Briitish - Bangladeshi 1.02% 9.41% 1.11% 10.21% 1.22% 9.96% 1.09% 9.80% 2.69% 10.55% 1.92% 12.40% 1.71% 12.45% 9.3

9.2 8.2 8.9 3.9 6.5 7.3 Chinese 2.82% 13.23% Other Asian Background 2.24% 12.07% 4.7 5.4 Unknown/not Mixed Other Total applicable 2.13%

1.11% 1.60% 1.33% 8.88% 8.62% Percentage of Black9.91% female 9.60% 4.2 students7.8 taking CS. 6.2 7.2 White F M Ratio F M Ratio Black or Black or Black Black British British - Caribbean African Other Black Background

Asian or Asian Briitish Indian Asian or Asian Briitish Pakistani Asian or Asian Briitish - Bangladeshi 1.02% 9.41% 1.11% 10.21% 1.22% 9.96% 1.09% 9.80% 2.69% 10.55% 1.92% 12.40% 1.71%

12.45% 9.3 9.2 8.2 8.9 3.9 6.5 7.3 Chinese 2.82% 13.23% Other Asian Background 2.24% 12.07% 4.7 5.4 Unknown/not Mixed Other

Total applicable 2.13% 1.11% 1.60% 1.33% 8.88% Ratio varies8.62% radically9.91% between 9.60% 4.2 groups 7.8 6.2 7.2 White F M Ratio F M Ratio Black or Black or Black Black British British - Caribbean African

Other Black Background Asian or Asian Briitish Indian Asian or Asian Briitish Pakistani Asian or Asian Briitish - Bangladeshi 1.02% 9.41% 1.11% 10.21% 1.22% 9.96% 1.09% 9.80% 2.69% 10.55% 1.92%

12.40% 1.71% 12.45% 9.3 9.2 8.2 8.9 3.9 6.5 7.3 Chinese Unknown/not applicable 2.13% 8.88% Mixed Other Total

2.82% 13.23% Other Asian Background 2.24% 12.07% 1.11% 8.62% 1.60% 9.91% 1.33% 9.60% 4.7 5.4 4.2 7.8 6.2 7.2 Gender + Ethnicity Asian groupings are relatively less discriminatory. Black and White groupings relatively worse.

Meanwhile in China Subject Area White (1) Medicine & dentistry (2) Subjects allied to medicine (3) Biological sciences (4) Veterinary science (5) Agriculture & related subjects (6) Physical sciences (7) Mathematical sciences (8) Computer science (9) Engineering & technology (A) Architecture, building & planning Total - Science subject areas (B) Social studies (C) Law (D) Business & administrative studies (E) Mass communications & documentation (F) Languages (G) Historical & philosophical studies (H) Creative arts & design (I) Education (J) Combined Total - Non-science subject areas Total - All subject areas Asian or Other Black or

Black or Asian or Asian or Asian British including Black British Black British Other Black Asian British Asian British Other Asian mixed - Caribbean - African background - Indian - Pakistani Bangladeshi background Chinese background 0.82 0.28 0.59 0.31 3.50 1.94 1.05 2.18 2.79 1.38 0.95 0.98 1.65 1.11 1.13 1.11 0.82 1.58 0.72 0.76 1.03

1.21 0.81 1.02 0.77 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.70 1.06 1.23 0.15 0.02 0.00 0.27 0.04 0.00 0.16 0.86 0.55 1.23 0.35 0.18 0.19 0.16 0.10 0.05 0.20 0.23 0.41 1.11 0.34 0.37

0.45 0.78 0.55 0.57 0.65 1.20 0.85 0.99 0.39 0.56 0.62 1.65 0.88 1.22 1.44 2.95 0.93 0.95 0.89 1.01 0.97 1.34 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.63 0.96 0.96 0.51 1.09 0.74 1.24

1.21 0.96 1.59 1.60 1.09 1.01 0.87 0.98 0.83 0.88 0.77 0.70 1.23 1.31 1.14 0.99 0.82 1.03 0.86 1.17 1.06 0.90 1.29 1.19 0.95 0.96 1.45 1.39 1.27 1.02 1.03 1.21

0.69 0.70 1.12 0.85 1.42 1.52 1.51 1.32 2.26 1.84 1.11 0.90 1.27 0.87 1.38 1.62 1.63 1.47 1.54 1.91 1.34 1.39 1.10 1.04 1.11 1.15 1.10 1.08 1.17 1.01 1,154,180

1.55 0.59 0.44 1.21 1.10 0.76 1.17 23,070 0.99 0.35 0.33 0.47 0.63 0.32 0.97 77,390 1.32 0.63 0.37 0.89 1.01 0.85 1.13 5,550 0.55 0.53 0.45 0.37

0.53 0.35 0.84 50,170 0.42 0.50 0.39 0.25 1.06 0.35 0.94 46,760 0.48 0.59 0.49 0.31 1.49 0.26 1.09 20,720 0.54 0.41 0.27 0.62 0.36 0.40 0.73 31,575

0.56 0.67 0.39 0.92 0.32 0.59 0.83 11,815 1.19 1.13 0.87 1.13 0.66 0.58 1.04 79,610

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