The Contemporary Systems Development Project Landscape

The Contemporary Systems Development Project Landscape

IS 455 Project Management How to Plan a TPM Project Agenda: Calendar/ Canvas Status Reports - weekly Microaggression Presentation Tips: #3, #6 Mentor Program

Quizzes each week you should be taking one Simulation Powered Learning Introduction Team #4 How to Plan a TPM Project COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Simulation Powered Learning Tip #3: Schedule reoccurring meetings to show importance. COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019

3 Simulation Powered Learning Tip #6: You need to leave the Staff phase on the schedule when you add resources. Just having the task number is not sufficient for the resource to start working. COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 4 Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Presented by Tom Sulzer Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Summary of Chapter 5 Using tools, templates, and processes to plan a TPM project The importance of planning Using application software packages to plan projects Planning & conducting the Joint Project Planning Session (JPPS) Building the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Estimating task duration Estimating resource requirements

Estimating cost Constructing the project network diagram Writing an effective project proposal Gaining approval to launch the project Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Pain Curve Pain Good Planning Poor Planning 18-36% Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Time Figure

05-01 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Importance of Planning Planning Reduces Uncertainty Planning Increases Understanding Planning Improves Efficiency Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Using Software Packages to Plan a Project Yes

Very large projects Distributed teams Extensive use of vendors and contractors No Small projects Short duration project increments Adds too much non-value-added work Frequent scope and requirements changes Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Project Planning Tools

Sticky notes (assorted colors) Marking pens (assorted colors) Plenty of whiteboard space Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Uses for Sticky Notes Task ID

Unique task name Task duration Task labor Resource requirements Task manager ES, EF, LS, and LF (calculated values) Critical Path (calculated) Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Uses for Marking Pens Define dependency relationships Identify the critical path Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Uses for the Whiteboard

Project Overview Statement Work Breakdown Structure Dependency Diagram Initial Project Schedule Final Project Schedule Resource Schedule Issues Log Updated Project Schedule Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project How Much Time Should Planning Take?

Very small projects Small projects Medium projects Large projects Very large projects < day < 1 day 2 days 3-4 days ??? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The JPPS Meeting Components

Attendees Facilities Equipment Agenda Deliverables Project Proposal Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The JPPS Attendees

Facilitator Project manager Another project manager JPP consultant Technographer Core project team Client representative Resource managers Project champion Functional managers Process owner Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project

The JPPS Facilities & Equipment Facilities Comfortable Away from interruptions (off-site or on-site) Break-out rooms? Equipment Break-out group work areas (table, chairs, flip charts) Whiteboards Projection equipment

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Complete JPPS Agenda Session #1 Session #2 Negotiate the COS Build the RBS Write the POS

Session #3 Part 1: Kick-off Part 2: Working session Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Whos Involved in the Planning Process? Session #1 Project Manager Client Session #2 Project Manager Client Project Team (known members)

Session #3 Project Manager Entire Project Team Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The JPPS Agenda Session #3 Planning Kick-off Introduction of Sponsor Sponsor overview of the project and its importance to the company/division/department Introduction of the client co-project manager Introduction of the IT co-project manager Introduction of the core project team

Introduction of the planning facilitation team (facilitator and technographer) Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project JPPS Agenda Session #3 Working session Validation & prioritization of requirements Overview of the project planning approach to be taken Generation and validation of the WBS Estimate duration, labor and resource requirements

Creation of the dependency diagram Discuss critical path and project completion date Analysis and schedule compression as needed Identification of project risks and mitigation plans Planning team consensus on project plan contents Adjournment Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Planning Session Activities Review the POS for clarity Create Work Breakdown Structure

Estimate task duration and resource needs Construct project network diagram Determine critical path Revise and approve project schedule Finalize resource schedule Gain consensus on the project plan Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Role of the Client in the JPPS The client or their representative must be present. Validation of requirements and POS

Prioritizing requirements (MoSCoW) Generating and validating the WBS Commitment of resources from the client Agreement on the project plan Client must own the project plan Meaningful involvement by the client Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Definition of the WBS The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical description of all of the work that must be done to meet the needs of the client. Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The RBS Each activity is a further decomposition of the WBS.

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-02 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Hierarchical visualization of the WBS GOAL Function Function Subfunction Subfunction Function Macro-Level Subfunction Mid- Level

Activity Micro-Level Task #1 Task #2 Task #3 . . . . Task #n Work Package Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-03 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Uses for the WBS?

Thought process tool Architectural design tool Planning tool Project status reporting tool Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Generating the WBS Converting the RBS to the WBS (Figure 5.2) Top-Down Approach

Team Approach Subteam Approach Team Approach Subteam Approach Bottom-Up Approach Which is best? When? Why? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project WBS Completion Criteria

Status and completion are measurable The activity is bounded The activity has a deliverable Time and cost are easily estimated Activity duration is within acceptable limits Work assignments are independent Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project WBS Completion Criteria The 7th criterion The client didnt participate in building the WBS like you expected. You have an uncomfortable feeling Scope change is likely to be a big part of the project Choose a PMLC model that accommodates frequent change

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project WBS Completion Criteria Exceptions Stopping Before Completion Criteria Are Met Decomposing Beyond Completion of the Criteria Short duration projects High risk activities Large duration variance Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project RBS is a subset of the WBS

Project goal and solution Requirement 1 Function 1.1 Sub-function 1.2.1 Feature 1.2.1.1 Activity 1.2.1.1.1 Function 1.2 Sub-function 1.2.2

Feature 1.2.1.2 Activity 1.2.1.1.2 Task 1.2.1.1.3.1 Feature 1.2.1.3 WBS Requirement n Function 1.3 Function n.1 Function

n.2 Function n.3 Sub-function 1.2.3 Feature 1.2.1.4 Activity 1.2.1.1.3 Task 1.2.1.1.3.2 RBS Feature n.3.1

Feature n.3.2 Activity n.3.4.1 Task 1.2.1.1.3.3 Feature n.3.3 Feature n.3.4 Activity n.3.4.2 Task n.3.4.3.1 Activity

n.3.4.3 Task n.3.4.3.2 Task n.3.4.3.3 Figure 05-04 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Approaches to Building the WBS Noun-type Approaches

Verb-type Approaches Physical components Functional components Design-build-test-implement Objectives Organizational approaches Geographic Departmental Business process Which is best?

When? Why? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Hypothetical exercise Your problem is to build your dream home. COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Graphical WBS for a House HOUSE FOUNDATIO N SITE Layout Grade

FRAMING WALLS Install Sheathing Excavate Erect Forms ROOFING Pour Concrete Remove forms SUBFLOOR

FLOOR JOISTS Hang Sheetrock STUD WALLS Tape & Bed Install 1st Floor Install 1st Floor Install

2nd Floor Install 2nd Floor Install 2nd Floor Install Cabinets Install Appliances LANDSCAPING FINISH WORK

Lay Shingles ELECT. FRAME ROOF Install 1st Floor UTILITIES Install Furnace GAS WATER Do

Rough-in Work Do Rough-in Work Do Rough-in Work Get Building Inspect. Get Building Inspect. Get Building Inspect.

Do Finish Work Do Finish Work Do Finish Work Lay Carpet Paint Walls & Molding Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Hang Wallpaper Lay Tile Figure 05-05 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Indented Outline WBS for a House 1. SITE PREPARATION 1.1. Layout 1.2. Grading 1.3. Excavation 2.

FOUNDATION 2.1. Erect Forms 2.2. Pour Concrete 2.3. Remove Forms 3. FRAMING 3.1. Floor Joists 3.1.1. Install first floor joists 3.1.2. Install second floor joists 3.2. Sub-flooring 3.2.1. Install first floor sub-flooring

3.2.2. Install second floor sub-flooring 3.3. Stud Walls 3.3.1. Erect first floor stud walls 3.3.2. Erect second floor stud walls 3.4. Frame the roof Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-06 Hypothetical exercise Does it look like this COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Or, does it look like this

COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Hypothetical exercise Depending on which home you are building, you are probably going to have the same tasks, but to varying degree how they are carried out. COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project WBS for a Waterfall SDM SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Definition State objectives Design Implementation

Functional Programming Identify interfaces Source code Establish objectives Design I/O JCL Identify key issues Spec audits/controls Confirm specs Documentation

Clarify request Define requirements Obtain current doc. Get approval Technical Installation Define new reqmts Define pgm specs Testing Choose SDM Prepare system flow

Training Get approval Cut-over Convert data Build integration test plan Get approval Construct code Conduct unit test Construct JCL Conduct system test Get approval Finalize test plan Create test data Conduct test Conduct operations training Conduct user training

Finalize plan Convert data Cut-over to production Operation Operate system Review Establish plan Review performance Audit Get approval Complete financial analysis Analyze risks Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-07

Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Using WBS Templates Saves planning time Builds on prior experience Standardizes the planning and management of projects using the templates Provides a structure for collecting and using estimated/actual duration and cost data Focuses process quality improvement efforts Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Typical Recurring Projects

Update an application with new functionality Distribute a new release of a software package Install a network in a field office Update training materials Develop new training materials Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Elapsed time (duration) versus work time (labor) Labor L=D 10 L = .75D

8 6 33% unplanned interruptions 4 2 Duration 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 MODEL ASSUMPTIONS * * Individuals work at 75 percent efficiency rate.

Unplanned interruptions account for 33 percent of clock time. Figure 05-08 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Should I Estimate Task Duration or Task Labor? Estimate duration to build the schedule and determine when the project will be completed Estimate labor when you have to contain expenses within a budget Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Class Demonstration

Need a volunteer! Need another volunteer! Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Resource Loading vs. Task Duration 1. Pick up the chair 2. Carry it to the door Time 3. Set the chair down 4. Open the door 5. Hold the door open with your foot as you pick up the chair 6. Carry the chair out the door 7. Set the chair in the hallway

1 2 3 4 # of people on the team Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Causes of Variation in Duration Varying skill levels Unexpected events

Efficiency of work time Mistakes and misunderstandings Variation within the capability of the system Common cause variation Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Six Methods for Estimating Task Duration Extrapolating based on similarity to other activities Studying historical data Seeking expert advice Applying the Delphi Technique (Fig 5.9) Applying the Three-point technique (Fig 5.10) Applying the Wide-band Delphi technique

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Delphi Technique Third Pass Second Pass First Pass Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-09 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project The Three-Point Method O M

P E O: Optimistic P: Pessimistic M: Most Likely E= O + 4M + P 6 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-10 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Estimates Have a Life Cycle Too range

time You will be smarter tomorrow than you are today. Figure 05-11 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Estimating Resource Requirements People Facilities Equipment Money

Materials Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Assigning Staff to Activities Figure 05-12 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Resource Organizational Structure Figure 05-13 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Estimating Cost

Order of magnitude estimate Budget estimate Definitive estimate Cost Budgeting Cost Control Weekly reports Baseline versus actual Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Network-based Scheduling Gantt Charts Design

Build Test Install time Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Network-based Scheduling Task on the Arrow Figure 05-14 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Network-based Scheduling Task on the node format

Figure 05-15 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Task Node ES ID EF SLACK E LF LS Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure

05-16 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Diagramming Conventions Figure 05-17 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Dependency Relationships A B A FF: When A finishes, B may finish B A

SS: When A starts, B may start B A FS: When A finishes, B may start B SF: When A starts, B may finish Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Figure 05-18 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Dependency Constraints Technical constraints

Management constraints Inter-project constraints Date constraints Discretionary constraints Best practice constraints Logical constraints Unique requirements constraints

No earlier than No later than On this date Lag variables Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Paths Through the Network The Forward Pass Early Schedule Left to right (start to finish) Determines Early Start and Early Finish ES + duration 1 = EF

Backward Pass Late Schedule Right to left (finish to start) Determines Late Start and Late Finish LF - duration + 1 = LS Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Forward Pass Calculations Early Schedule Figure 05-19 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Backward Pass Calculations Late Schedule

Figure 05-20 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Critical Path Figure 05-21 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Example How did we get the #s? 1 2 Activity A 2 1

2 4 3 8 Activity B 2 3 4 12 Activity C 5 8 12 13

16 Activity F 4 5 7 Activity D 3 5 7 8 10 Activity E 3 10 12

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 13 16 Computing the Slack 3 6 9 B (S=2) 4 1 2 5 13

D (S=0) 5 8 9 13 2 15 F (S=0) 2 A (S=0) 2 1 14 3

8 C (S=0) 6 3 8 9 11 E (S=2) 3 11 13 Activity Slack = LF-EF (or LS-ES) Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 14

15 Computing Slack Cont. 2 1 Activity A 2 1 (S=0) 2 4 3 8 Activity B 2

3 (S=0) 4 12 Activity C 5 8 (S=0) 12 13 16 Activity F 4 5 7

Activity D 3 5 (S=0) 7 8 10 Activity E 3 10 (S=2) 12 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 13 (S=0) 16 The Critical Path 2 1

Activity A 2 1 (S=0) 2 4 3 8 Activity B 2 3 (S=0) 4 12 Activity C 5

8 (S=0) 12 13 16 Activity F 4 5 7 Activity D 3 5 (S=0) 7 8 10

Activity E 3 10 (S=2) 12 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 13 (S=0) 16 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Early Start to Late Finish Window Task ES Slack Duration LF Figure 05-22 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Slack Time Total Slack Time that a task can be delayed without impacting the early schedule of the project. Free Slack Time a task can be delayed without impacting the early schedule of its successor tasks. Do Not Plan to Use Slack

to Bail Out the Project! Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Building the Initial Dependency Diagram 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Enter task name and duration into software tool Print PERT Diagram Cut out each task node and affix to a Sticky Note Write task ID # on Post-It Note Place Sticky Notes on right side of whiteboard Position start node on left side of whiteboard Move all tasks with no predecessor to left side and

connect to start node Move all tasks on the right side with predecessors on the left side to the left side and connect with single line Continue until all task nodes have been moved to left side Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Schedule Compression Techniques Replace FS with SS dependencies Replace a team member with a more skilled person Add resources

From non-critical path tasks to critical path tasks From other projects To where critical path tasks high-risk tasks tasks with large duration variances Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Schedule Compression Iterations Figure 05-23 Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Schedule Compression

Schedule compression doesnt come free. What is the impact on the project due to schedule compression? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Management Reserve DO NOT PAD ACTIVITY DURATION A percentage (5 10) of total project work hours The last activity in the project A schedule contingency for the unexpected Make it visible and manage it Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project Contents of the Project Proposal Executive Summary Background Objective Overview of the approach to be taken Detailed statement of work Time and cost summary Appendices Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Ch05: How to Plan a TPM Project

Gaining Approval to Launch the Project The cost/benefit is not in your favor The risks of failure are too high The total project cost exceeds available funding There are other projects competing for the same resources Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #1: What are the advantages and disadvantages of holding a JPPS session onsite versus offsite? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management

Class discussion #2: Your planning session seems to have reached an impasse. The planning team is divided between two ways to approach a particularly difficult part of the project. Approximately two-thirds of the team members want to use a well-tested and well-understood approach. The remaining third (of which you are a member) wants to use a new approach that holds the promise of significantly reducing the time to complete this part of the project. You are the project manager and feel very strongly about using the new approach. Should you impose your authority as project manager and take the new approach, or should you go with the majority? What is the basis for your decision? Be specific. Is there anything else you might do to resolve the impasse? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #3: Why is building the WBS by walking around the workspace or the e-mail space a ticket to failure? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Project Management Class discussion #4: The WBS identifies all of the work that must be done to complete the project. What would you do if the answer to a question posed as part of the work determines which of the two alternatives mentioned in question #2 you should pursue? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #5: Under what conditions might you choose to decompose an activity that meets all of the six completeness criteria? Give specific examples. Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #6: Can you think of any activities that would not meet all six completeness criteria, yet need not be further decomposed?

Give specific examples. Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #7: You have used the three-point method to estimate the duration of a task that you know will be critical to the project. The estimate produces a very large difference between the optimistic and pessimistic estimates. What actions might you take, if any, regarding this task? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #8: Discuss a project on which you've worked where time was the major factor in determining the success or failure of the project. What did you do about cost considerations? Did the sponsor(s) agree with the added cost? Was the project successful?

Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #9: Prepare a simple budget showing an order of magnitude estimate, a budget estimate, and a definitive estimate. What did you have to do to bring each successive budget closer to the final working budget? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #10: The project network diagram has been constructed, and the project completion date is beyond the managementimposed deadline. You have compressed the schedule as much as possible by introducing parallel work through changes from FS to SS dependencies, and you still do not meet the schedule deadline. What would you do? (Hint: Use the scope triangle discussed in Chapter 1.) Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Project Management Class discussion #11: Even though all of your tasks have met the WBS completion criteria, what scheduling problems might prompt you to further decompose one or more of them, and how will that resolve the problems? Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #12: You are the project manager of a project to develop a new system for the company. You have two options for a resource to work on a specific programming task for your project. The task is not on the critical path, but it is somewhat complex. Your options are as follows: a) One choice is Harry. He is the most skilled programmer in the company and is therefore in constant demand. As a result, he is usually assigned to several projects at the same time. He is available to your project on a half-time basis. He currently has commitments to two other projects for the remaining half of his time. b) Your other choice is actually a team of two programmers, both of whom have average skills. They are recent hires into the company and have never worked together before. You have two alternatives and are free to choose whichever one

you want. First, you could pick one of these programmers to work half-time on your project. Second, they could each be assigned to your project quarter-time. Regardless of which choice you make, this would be the only project they would be working on. The remainder of their time will be spent in training on company processes and systems, and orientation to company policies and practices. Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019 Project Management Class discussion #13: The PDQ system consists of the following six subsystems: Pizza Factory Locator Order Entry Logistics Order Submit Routing Inventory Management Pick one of these subsystems and build a complete WBS. You may have to make assumptions in order to complete this exercise. If so, just state them with your rationale. Copyright Tom Sulzer 2019

Next Time: Team Time Next Week: *Tuesday: Speaker: David Staloch and Tami Carlson US Bank *Thursday: Speaker: Bret Bushman - JAMF *Please come prepared to ask questions. COPYRIGHT TOM SULZER 2019 Introduction

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