The Cold War in Europe: Challenges in the 40's, 50's, and 60's.

The Cold War in Europe: Challenges in the 40's, 50's, and 60's.

The Cold War in Europe: Challenges in the 40s, 50s, and 60s. Standard

W.53 Evaluate the goals, leadership, and postwar plans of the principal allied leaders: the Atlantic Conference, Yalta, and the Potsdam Conference using text evidence. (H, P)

Objective A. Explain the significance of the Yalta Conference

Europe attempts to Regain Stability Yalta Conference 1945 Before WWII was over Meeting between big 3

1.Poland would have free elections, but U.S.S.R would get some of their eastern lands, and they would get German lands in the west

2. Soviet Union would join in in the war against Japan 3. Soviet Union would join United Nations with a veto vote 4.All original governments would be restored

5.Unconditional surrender of Germany Yalta cartoon 1946 Plebiscite in Italy voted to do away

with the monarchy and establish a republic Charles De Gaulle ran a makeshift government in France until the Fourth French Republic was set up

Postwar Treaties The Council of Foreign Ministers drew up treaties with the Defeated countries of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Finland

These countries had to give up lands they had taken and accept changes to their pre war boundaries. They had to reduce the size of their armed forces and pay reparations. The Treaty of 1955 made Austria a sovereign

democratic nation Objective B. Explain the significance of the Potsdam

Conference Problems for Germany Potsdam Conference in 1945 Atlee/Churchill, Stalin, Truman

1. Germany/Austria divided into 4 occupation zones 2. Put Nazi War criminals on trial 3. Allied Control Council-Determined

what industry Germany could make and disbanded the German Military units. Resettling Germans not in their borders anymore The Soviets, and French wanted strict

limits on German industry while the U.S. and British were more lenient. Objective C. Identify the Nuremberg trials

Nuremberg Trials and Denazification 1945-1946 a special court met at Nuremburg to try the captured Nazi

leaders responsible for the murders and other horrible atrocities 12 defendants were sentenced to death, 7 were given life in prison, and 3 were

acquitted. The Nazi party was declared a criminal organization. This caused problems because many skilled workers had been Nazis By 1948 the denazification courts had

almost ceased to function in Germany Standard W.54 Summarize the reasons for the establishment of the United Nations and

the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and their impact on the globalization of diplomacy and conflict and the balance of power. (C, H, P)

Objective D. Identify the United Nations and its purposes

The United Nations April 1945 representatives from 51 nations met in San Francisco By October the required number of Nations had ratified the charter and the

United Nations was established Purposes of the United Nations 1. to maintain peace and security 2. to promote equal rights and the selfdetermination of peoples

3. to develop international cooperation 4. to encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without regard to race, sex, language, or religion

The General Assembly Created the Budget Elects the Secretary-General

The Security Council Maintains peace, settles disputes among nations, and prevents or resists aggression 15 member nations and 5 permanent

members in U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union, France, and China Secretariat Elected for 5 years

Specialized agencies

2 choices Reporter covering the Nuremburg trials

Or 2 people having a conversation about if the United Nations will work with the differences in communism and the western nations

The Cold War divided Europe Satellites- offered a buffer zone against German expansion or the NATO countries

Iron-curtain countries Cominform Objective E. Analyze Containment

The Truman Doctrine Containment- the action or policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile country or influence

Who was Truman talking about? Containment video Standard

W.55 Describe the nature of reconstruction in Europe after 1945, including the purpose of the Marshall Plan, creation of NATO, and division of Germany. (E, G, H, P)

Objective F. Identify the Marshall plan The Marshall Plan

The European Recovery Program(Marshall Plan) said the U.S. was prepared to assist Europe on certain terms 1. Determine their needs on a continental

basis 2. Show what resources they could put into a common pool for economic rebuilding

3. Stabilize their currencies 4. Remove trade barriers so goods could flow freely Congress approved 13 billion for the first four years

The Marshall Plan video Standard W.60 Trace Soviet aggression in Eastern

Europe, the 1956 uprising in Hungary, conflicts involving Berlin and the Berlin Wall, and the Prague Spring. (G, H, P) Objective

G. Describe how Germany was divided The Division of Germany The Soviet Union blockaded Berlin The U.S and Great Britain organized

airlifts of food and coal to the 2 million people of West Berlin May 23, 1949 They created the Federal Republic of Germany(West Germany) Oct 1949, German Democratic

Republic(communist East Germany) Berlin Airlift video Standard

W.57 Summarize, using text evidence, the functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States. (H, P)

Objective H. Identify NATO and the Warsaw pact Political Alliances

NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization April 1949-U.S., Great Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and

Luxembourg 1952-Greece, and Turkey joined 1955- West Germany joined If one was attacked they all would take united action against the aggressor

The Warsaw Pact 1955-Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania

Summit conferences Started in the 1950s and were called summit conferences

Formation of Nato and Warsaw Objective I. Explain the differences between Western and Eastern Europe and their

economies Western Europe Experienced Progress Market economies-private people decided

What goods and services should be produced How these goods and services should be produced For whom these goods and services

should be produced The communist had command economies where the government made all the decisions

Objective J. Identify Nikita Khrushchev The Communist Bloc Faced Challenges in

the Postwar Period Nikita Khrushchev emerged as Communist party leader and Soviet Premier in 1955

De-stalinization Lifted restrictions on artist and intellectuals Freed many political prisoners

Ended some terrorism of the secret police Khrushchev loosened the central governments tight grip on the economy

Factory and farm workers were given more control Too much money was spent on defense Led to his forced resignation in 1964 Peaceful coexistence lasted till 1960 when

the U.S. U2 spyplane was shot down over the Soviet Union Deteriorated further with the building of the Berlin wall

The cuban missle crisis Standard W.62 Describe the Soviet-United States competition in Asia with particular attention

to the Korean War and Vietnam War and describe the environmental changes due to carpet bombing, Napalm, and Agent Orange. (G, H, P)

The Cold War in Asia Standard W.59 Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Zedong, and the triumph of the

Communist Revolution in China. (H, P) Objective K. Describe the power shift in China after WWII

Communist took control in China and Created a New Society After WWII the communist increased their military strength and expanded

their territory By 1949 they had driven the nationalist from power 1949 Chiang Kai-shek(nationalist leader) fled to the island Taiwan

Objective L. Identify Mao Zedong The communist led

by Mao Zedong established the Peoples Republic of China

The Chinese Economy By either election or appointment communist party members were put in all key government and military offices In 1953 they released their first 5 year

plan The Soviet Union helped with some of the capital but China paid most of it Agricultural production increased and

output more than doubled in heavy industries as coal and steel 1958 the Great Leap Forward was a second 5 year plan It established huge collective

communities called peoples communes The Great Leap forward failed and 3 straight crop failures left millions of

people with food shortages In the 1960s they abandoned the program Test Question

Domino theory- the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall.

The Korean War Objective M. Identify the 38th parallel

Agreements at the end of WWII divided Korea at the 38th parallel. The Soviets occupied the North and the U.S. the South

Objective N. Describe the reasons for and events of the Korean War

In 1948 the Soviet Union prevented the U.N. commission sent to supervise the elections Elections in the South resulted in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The

prez was Syngman Rhee and the capitol was Seoul. The Democratic Peoples Republic (North Korea) was led by Kim Il Sung

In June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea and took over Seoul Objective O. Identify Douglas McArthur

Most of the U.N. troops as well as the commander, Douglas McArthur

were from the U.S. September 1950, the U.S. launched an attack

As the U.S. approached the Yalu river, the border between Korea and China, 200,000 Chinese soldiers joined in on the North Korean side They drove McArthur and his army

south of the 38th parallel McArthur wanted to bomb Chinas supply bases and blockade the Chinese coast

McArthurs replacement Matthew B. Ridgeway pushed the Chinese and North Koreans back across the 38th parallel July 1951, they started to talk peace

After two years of negotiations an armistice was signed in July 1953 It fixed the boundary line at the 38th parallel and establish a demilitarized

zone Vietnam Objective

P. Identify Ho Chi Minh The French in Indochina The League for the Independence of Vietnam, a largely communist group

better known as the Viet Minh were the main ones that fought the French Ho Chi Minh declared the country independent on Sep, 2 1945

Objective Q. Describe the reasons for and events of the Vietnam War Guerilla War in Vietnam

Ngo Dinh Diem was the leader of South Vietnam and he outlawed a number of political parties including communist He showed little interest in social or economic reforms and refused to take

part in the proposed election of 1956 The National Liberation Front (NLF) was set up to overthrow Diem They soon became known as the Viet

Cong (Vietnamese communist) A group of army officers assassinated Deim in 1963 American Involvement

President Eisenhower sent military and economic aid to South Vietnam and allowed the CIA to assist the Diem government President Kennedy sent American

military advisors to help the South Vietnamese army President Johnson substantially raised the troop numbers in the mid-1960s

He gave 3 reasons 1. Communism had to be contained 2. Domino theory- If Vietnam fell then all of the south eastern Asian countries may follow

3. North Vietnam were the aggressors and should be stopped Jan, 1965 the U.S. started air attacks on all of North Vietnam

Jan, 1968 the Viet Cong launched the Tet Offensive which threatened many major cities including Saigon March, 1968 Johnson announced a temporary halt in bombing

1969, Nixon took over and the amount of American soldiers rose over 500,000 Vietnamization 1970 we invaded neutral Cambodia and

in 72 we resumed bombing Ending the War 1973 a ceasefire was called it was known as the Paris Accords

April 1975, the North entered Saigon Casualties for North and South Vietnam totaled over 5 million and around 58,000 U.S. soldiers were killed with over 300,000 wounded

A reunited Vietnam July 1976 the North and South formed The Socialist Republic of Vietnam The capitol was Hanoi and they

renamed Saigon, Ho Chi Minh city Crash course: The Cold War

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