The Axis Advances

The Axis Advances

The Axis Advances Chapter #14 Section #2 The Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939- Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with his great enemy Joseph Stalin of the

Soviet Union. - Both leaders agreed not to fight if the other went to war. - They would divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe between them. - Hitler feared communism and Stalin feared fascism. - A week after the pact was signed, Hitler invaded Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared

war on Germany. World War II had begun! The Axis Powers vs. The Allies Axis Powers 1. Nazi Germany 2. Fascist Italy 3. Imperial Japan States

The Allies 1. Britain 2. France 3. United 4. Soviet Union I. The Axis Attacks A.

September1, 1939 1. 2. 3. B. The Miracle of Dunkirk

1. 2. 3. C. France Falls 1. 2.

3. Blitzkrieg Luftwaffe Operation Sea Lion

With the fall of France, Britain stood alone in Western Europe. Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister of Great Britain. Hitler made plans for Operation Sea Lion -to

invade Britain. - to prepare for the invasion, Hitler launched massive air strikes against the island nation. - beginning in August 1940, German bombers began a daily bombardment of Englands southern coast. - Britains Royal Air Force (RAF) bravely battled the German Luftwaffe. - Then the Germans decided to bomb London and other cities, instead of military targets.

Germany Launches the Blitz German bombers began bombing London on September 7, 1940. The bombing continued for 57 nights in a row, and was known as the blitz. - Much of London was destroyed and thousands of people lost

their lives. London did not break under the blitz. - Parliament continued to meet. - Citizens carried on their daily lives, seeking protection in shelters and then emerging to resume their daily lives when the all-clear sounded. - Even the British king and queen joined Londoners in bomb

shelters rather then fleeing to the countryside. Hitler Fails to Take Britain German Luftwaffe bombing finally stopped in May of 1941. The Luftwaffe could not gain air superiority over Britain, and the British morale was not destroyed. The bombing only made the British more

determined to defeat Hitler and the Nazis. Operation Sea Lion was a failure for Hitler. Answer from pgs. 466-469 What regions fell under Axis rule between 1939 and 1941?

Who helped the Axis powers defeat the Allies in North Africa? The Desert Fox General Erwin Rommel

Germany Invades the Soviet Union June of 1941, Hitler nullified the Nazi-Soviet Pact by invading the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Hitler wanted: - the Ural Mountains for their raw materials. - Siberia for its vast forests - the Ukraine for its tremendous wheat fields.

Hitler unleashed a new blitzkrieg in the Soviet Union as 3 million German soldiers invaded. - Stalin was unprepared as his army was still suffering from his purges of the Soviets top military officers. - The Soviets lost 2.5 million soldiers from the German invasion.

- Soviet troops destroyed factories, farm equipment, and burned crops to keep them out of German military hands. By autumn, the Nazis had penetrated deep into the Soviet Union, and were poised to take Moscow and Leningrad. The German advance stalled because Hitlers forces were not prepared for General Winter

- By early December of 1941, temperatures dropped to -40 degrees. - Thousands of German soldiers froze to death. The Soviets suffered hardships. - Food was rationed to two pieces of bread a day.

- People in Leningrad ate almost anything (wallpaper). - More than a million Leningraders died, but the city did not fall to German hands. Life Under Nazi Occupation Read pg. 471-473

Quick-write: - Why is it important to know the events of the Holocaust? Do you think its possible that something horrific like the Nazi concentration camps could occur again? Why or Why not?

American Neutrality When World War II began in 1939, the United States declared neutrality. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) looked for ways around the Neutrality Acts to provide warships and other aid to Britain to fight Hitler. The Neutrality Acts passed by the U.S. Congress included:

- forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war - outlawed loans to warring nations - prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of warring powers. - goal of American policy was to avoid involvement in a European war. American Involvement

Grows In March 1941, FDR persuaded Congress to pass the Lend Lease Act. - It allowed FDR to sell or lend war materials to any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States. Roosevelt

met secretly with Winston Churchill on a warship in the Atlantic in August 1941. The two leaders issued the Atlantic Charter which set goals for the war and the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny and for the postwar world. - They pledged to support the right of all peoples to choose the

form of government under which they will live and called for a permanent system of general security. Japan and the United States Face Off When war broke out in Europe in 1939, the Japanese grabbed European possessions in Southeast Asia.

- Japan took the rich resources of the region, including oil, rubber and tin. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials, such as iron, steel, and oil to Japan. - Japanese leaders saw this move as an attempt to interfere in Japans sphere of influence.

Japan and the U.S. held talks to ease tensions, but General Tojo Hideki wanted to expand Japans empire. Attack on Pearl Harbor

Early on December 7th, 1941, Japanese airplanes bombed the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, taking the lives of, 2,400 people. The next day President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.

On December 11, Germany and Italy, as Japan allies, declared war on the United States. USS Arizona Homework

Standards Check 14.2

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