Temperature Effects and Surface Properties

Temperature Effects and Surface Properties

Temperature, Hardness and Toughness Temperature Effects on Material Properties Temperature changes and extremes affect the value of many engineering properties yield, modulus, toughness, corrosion

resistance, creep, relaxation, viscosity, shrinkage, solubility.. Temp Effect on Tensile Strength Temp Effect on Other Properties Thermal Expansion Elevated Temperatures excite the electrons at the atomic level of any

material The excited atoms can more easily move to a lower energy state and change orientation of atomic planes This leads to dimensional changes in most materials Temperature vs. Expansion temp t t t is the coefficient of thermal

expansion. Surface Properties Hardness Scratch hardness Surface Hardness Impact Energy

Hardness - Mohs Scale Moh scale is a surface scratch resistant scale based on minerals 1 - Talc 2 - Gypsum 3 - Calcite (CaCO3) 4 - Flourite 5 - Apatite 6 - Orthoclase (Feldspar)

7 - Quartz 8 - Topaz 9 - Corundum (or sapphire) 10 - Diamond Surface Hardness Surface hardness is quantified by determining the energy necessary to cause localized plastic deformation. A specific energy is imparted on a surface of a material and the amount

of plastic deformation is quantified in most hardness procedures. Based on theory of plasticity. Types of hardness tests D Brinell - 1900 ball original hardness

test Rockwell - 1919, rounded cone most common, (ASTM E18) d BHN P

D D 2 D2 d 2 120 Use of hardness Surface hardness of heat treated metals Quality control of heat treatment

process Correlated with other properties Yield strength Brittleness Impact tests Charpy V-notch - Measure energy required to

rupture specimen Izod V-notch - Same as Charpy but different specimen Test Specimen and supports Pointer Pointer Final height, h

Initial height, h Quantify resistance to dynamic impacts and crack sensitivity Quantify the transition temperature of an alloy (ductile brittle behavior)

Impact Energy, Joules Use of impact resistance Ductile Brittle Temperature

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