TEENT Integration

TEENT Integration

The Case for RISE A model organization to prevent poverty, crime and high school drop out among children of incarcerated parents The Purpose of this Document The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of RISE, an organization that seeks to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty crime and incarceration that afflicts the children of incarcerated parents. The RISE impact has been significant. We have served over 600 children of incarcerated parents, raised graduation rates by 30%, and, based on recent estimates, saved society almost $10 for every dollar spent. Most importantly, RISE has changed lives. On many pages in this document we provide a quote from a child who is a RISE student or who is on a wait list for a mentor or tuition support. The words, aspirations, and achievements of these children make the case for RISE more articulately than any statistics we might cite.

Thank you for taking the time to review this document and we look forward to our conversation about the next generation of RISE. The link below, if pasted in your browser, will take you to a 4 minute description of RISE recently aired by a local news channel. http://www.turnto10.com/story/26190573/group-helps-inmates-children-families Contents 1. Background and Early History 2. Intervention Concept and Supporting Research 3. Impact of Education on Criminal Behavior and Social Costs the Research 4. RISE Impact and Social Return on Investment 5. The Real Return on Investment 6. How You Can Change a Childs Life

1. RISE Background and Early History A month after I was born, my dad went to prison for the first time. Unfortunately he got arrested and incarcerated numerous times. I can remember going to the prisons to visit my dad and being so happy to see him but at the same time very sad, because I had to leave him behind. Because of that experience, I want to excel in my schooling so I never have to experience what my family had to go through. - Ahmad The rate of incarceration has become an issue at the national and local level social and economic costs are staggering The US leads the world in incarceration rate at over 750 incarcerations per 100,000 people The risk of parental imprisonment before age 14 is 25% for black children, 7 times greater than whites; 1 in 28 children has a parent in prison Approximately 2/3 of all prison inmates are High School Drop-outs A one percent increase in high school graduation would yield a $1.1B US savings in crime and

incarceration costs Prior to starting RISE, physicians at Brown developed a model health care program for incarcerated populations Research-based practice supported by NIH and CDC grants to care for very high-risk populations: HIV, drug use, incarceration Created seamless multidisciplinary system of care for the incarcerated population: storefront clinics; prison clinics; hospital based; open access The Journal of the American Medical Association cited this program as a national model of correctional care However, the program only provided support to the incarcerated population Most of these patients had children who were at very high risk to repeat the cycle of poverty, crime and incarceration that afflicted their parents Having my first child at 17, I was forced to drop out of high school. His dad was incarcerated for murder when I was pregnant. I truly believe that giving my son the opportunity to go to a better school will help him overcome the

challenges I have faced in life. He will get the personal attention he needs, something I never got in school or life. Jermaines Mother These physicians asked: How do we prevent this socio-medical syndrome of poverty, crime, and incarceration from being transmitted to the next generation? The very few programs that focused on the children of incarcerated parents were psychological interventions to help cope with parental incarceration The existing programs did not address breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty, crime and incarceration The group recognized that they needed to develop a model program They conducted extensive research on what types of interventions worked with at-risk populations which revealed two recurring themes: Effective Schools: there are certain schools more likely to succeed with urban at-risk youth Mentoring: Randomized studies showed significant impact of mentoring I feel heart broken when I cant come home to a father that I can study with or ask questions. When I play sports, I

feel lost with no male figure to give me advice. If I attend a private school I would be available to more male figures in substitution for my father. They would actually care about me. In public school which Ive been, its different. Jermaine 2. RISE Intervention Concept and Supporting Research Growing up without a father, or my father in and out of my life, was hard. My father was incarcerated 10 times while growing up. I believe my purpose in life is to grow up and get a good education and make sure my family will always have something on their plate. That is why I would love to get into a good school. If I make it, maybe my dad will step up and stop going to jail, not just for me, but for my little brother. - Marquis Over the last 30 years multiple researchers catalogued the attributes of schools that are effective with disadvantaged youth; despite variation and debate, common themes emerge Edmunds 79 Strong Principal Leadership

Mastery of Basic Skills Orderly Environment High Expectations Frequent Assessments Bryck 93 Small School Size Autonomous Governance Strong Principal Leadership Inspirational/Mission-Driven Commitment to Character Communal Environment Focus on Academic Basics High Expectations Frequent Monitoring Safe, Orderly Environment

Levin 2006 Small School Size Personalized Caring Environment High Academic Expectations Strong Counseling and Guidance Parental Engagement Extended School Sessions Competent Personnel Mission-Driven Children of incarcerated parents rarely have access to public schools rich with these attributes, so we sought to provide educational opportunity in independent schools Tony Bryk (U. of Chicago, then Stanford, and Carnegie) was influential in crafting RISE criteria for partner schools

Attributes Description Small school size Optimally small when everyone in the school, from janitor to principal knows each child; creates familial atmosphere and personalized environment Strong principal leadership and autonomous governance Principal sets vision, tone and works with staff to tailor curriculum without political interference; has authority to recruit, hire, and fire

Mission-driven with commitment to character and community A commitment to mission and atmosphere that inspires all to continually improve and contribute to the community Focus on academic fundamentals Non essential subjects distract from the fundamentals; focus on math, reading and writing is important for disadvantaged youth High expectations and frequent monitoring Low expectations become self fulfilling prophecy, need to aim high and monitor progress

Safe, orderly environment Disadvantaged kids have increased exposure to violence and unsafe school environment exacerbates anxiety These attributes grew out of Bryks research to explain why disadvantaged youth seemed to perform better in certain independent schools More recent evidence from Peterson (Harvard) and Chingos (Brookings) found that independent schools chosen by urban African American children increased college enrollment by 24% Paul Peterson, the Shattuck Professor of Government and Director of Education Policy at Harvard and Matt Chingos Fellow at Brown Center on Education at Brookings, examined the impact of a school choice program on college enrollment among at-risk youth Long-term follow up of low income children in NYC who were offered parochial and private

elementary school scholarships in 1997; scholarships awarded based on lottery which permitted randomized study design 2,642 children (17 25 percentile performance for students nationwide) 1,363 in treatment group (on average used scholarship for 2.6 years) 1,279 in control group (11% ended up attending private school by year 3) Found that African American children who attended a private elementary school had a 24% increase in college enrollment; enrollment in selective 4 year colleges increased 100%. Consistent with earlier evidence from Bryk and others Emerging evidence also pointed to the efficacy of mentoring when provided in sufficient doses Public Private Ventures completed the first randomized study of mentoring ever conducted just prior to RISEs founding: about 1,000 children in Philadelphia and a comparable control group* The study showed that when children received at least 4 hours of mentoring a month for at least 18 months, there were measurable impacts on behavior including: 46% less likely to begin using drugs

52% less likely to skip school 33% less likely to hit someone I remember making up occupations for my incarcerated father. I was most proud of his imaginary job as programmer for IMB. I remember the day I learned how to tie a tie --- from a teacher. It was bittersweet. And I remember the day when, as a RISE mentor I taught Kimani how to tie a tie. One day these students will be able to thank RISE for the ties they tie, the occupations they choose, and the degrees they earn. David Blanding, RISE Mentor and Board Vice Chair *Wilson, SJ, Dropout Prevention and Intervention Programs, Campbell Systematic Reviews 2011:8 Based on this evidence RISE was initially based on two primary interventions: access to Effective Schools and Mentoring; Academic support and Family Support were critical additions Effective Schools a term for schools that are more likely to succeed with at-risk children Robust Mentoring described as mentoring for at least 4 hours a month for 18 months

It became clear that other interventions were important, especially: Academic Support such as tutoring, school based visits, advocacy, behavior contracts and goal setting, academic counseling, SAT Prep, College Tours, college essay writing, and college financial aid form completion support Family Support that included: Coaching for mothers and caregivers; Challenge Management to address the unexpected events and barriers that these children face, Financial Support for books, uniforms, bus passes I would like to thank my RISE sponsors for the opportunity for my education at Bay View Academy. I have been a student there since the first grade. I am now in the tenth grade and have had a great education. Not only do they teach, they demonstrate to students how to be responsible adults, to be caring, and to respect people. I will be forever grateful to my sponsors. I will always try to attain good grades in appreciation for their support. - Jean 3. Impact of Education On Criminal Behavior and Social Costs

It was hard to grow up without a dad to play catch with, bring me to basketball games, soccer games or Six Flags like other kids. My aunt used to take me to visit my dad once a month and he said to me this is a place where you do not want to be in. Going to a better school will help me overcome these challenges. I hope to be a good citizen when I get older and hopefully be able to help other kids the way I am being helped. - Joseph Evidence shows significant crime reduction and cost savings by increasing educational attainment Morretti (Berkeley) found that a one year increase in average years of schooling produces: Nearly 30% reduction in murder and assault 20% reduction in vehicle theft 13% reduction in arson 6% reduction in larceny Morretti also found a 1% increase in high school graduation would yield a $1.1B US savings About $2,100 per additional high school graduate per year, or about $94,500 over a lifetime These estimates understate savings as police and legal/judicial costs are not included and

victim costs are low; revised cost estimates by RAND are approximately 4 times higher All the men in my family either dont work or work at low paying jobs like in a grocery store. I dont think there is anything wrong with working at stores, but if I worked at a store I want to be the owner. I want the make a decent living for myself and I understand that it takes more than that. I want to be different. I want to make my family and my little brother proud of me. - Dametrrius Moretti, Does Education Reduce Criminal Activity, Berkeley Dept. Economics, 2005 Deming (Harvard) found that at-risk students attending higher quality schools had substantial reductions in criminal activity A large body of research has correlated lower educational attainment, especially the High School Dropout (HSD) rate, with increased incidence in crime; but there has been much less research on how the quality of the school impacts criminal behavior Using a randomized design, parents and students in Mecklenberg County NC were offered the opportunity to choose, based on quality, a school other than the one closest to their home

Deming found that high-risk youth that attended better schools committed approximately 50% less crime $35m total savings in victim costs; for highest risk kids a reduction of about $55k per year, with persistent effects even 7 years out Had assignments been based on risk, the cost of crime would have been reduced by an additional 27% Conclusion: A treatment of between 1 and 4 years of enrollment in a higher quality school led to large and persistent effects in young adult criminal activity Belfield and Levin rigorously quantified the taxpayer and social cost of a single high school drop-out: approximately $1 million Dr. Clive Belfield (CUNY) and Henry Levin, the Kilpatrick Professor of Education and Economics at Columbia, have studied the economic costs of educational failure They have divided costs into multiple categories, including: Crime-related costs Health care costs

Social program costs Economic costs such as reduced earnings Reduced tax receipts Belfield and Levin divided these costs into those that directly affect the taxpayer and other social costs: Taxpayer costs include: incarceration, legal and judicial costs, social programs, lower taxes paid by drop outs, etc. Social costs include: crime victim costs, non-governmental program costs, lost earnings etc. Over a lifetime, a 16 year old drop out will generate approximately $258,240 in direct cost to tax payers and approximately $755,900 in social costs, for a total of $1,014,140 4. RISE Impact and the Societal Return on Investment No one in my family has graduated from college so far and I want to be the first to do so. It has been extremely hard going through with my education with having a dad by my side. RISE made sure I received the help that I needed. This

year, my grades have been so much better because I am pushing myself. - Ariana RISE children were likely destined to have a high school drop out rate of over 40% The inner city drop out rate has hovered around 35 to 40% Yet RISE kids are from even higher risk families relative to their inner city peers A family survey regarding 89 RISE siblings who were not enrolled in RISE revealed: 41% failed to complete high school 37% were suspended from school 46% had trouble with law 62% had used drugs These were based on maternal/care giver reports and are likely under-reported I come from a tough neighborhood in South Providence. The people next door were living illegally in a foreclosed They terrorized the neighborhood with loud music, parties, dealing drugs, demanding neighbors properties home. and violence. The house next door burned down because they started a fire. With a good education I can get a

good job, move out and live in a safe neighborhood. - Elijah Since 1998 RISE has served over 600 children of incarcerated parents and the evidence suggests a very significant impact on high school graduation and academic achievement Over the last 15 years RISE has served 605 children of incarcerated parents, it was one of the first programs to focus on this population and the only one to use this holistic approach The data available on children who attended opportunity schools for at least 2 years reveal that they have over an 80% graduation rate This is a dramatic improvement over an expected graduation rate of less than 60% We have had over 50 children enroll in college an unheard of achievement in these families My greatest struggle since the third grade is my dads incarceration. The thing that hurts the most is when he came to see me two months before he was incarcerated for the second time, he promised me it would never happen again. Two months later I get a letter saying he is in jail. As I got older I saw all of the great relationships my friends had with their fathers that I was not able to have. One thing that I think helped me was focusing on my education. I

am excited to start my freshman year in high school because it is one step towards my dream of becoming a journalist. -- Sky Economic research suggest return on investment for RISE is high: approximately 10 dollars return for every dollar spent Based on available data, RISE has increased graduation rates among those attending an opportunity school from less than 60% to over 80% Using Belfields estimates, this suggests RISE yielded a savings of approximately $56M This is attributed to the lifetime impact of increased graduation rates on costs of incarceration, criminal justice, social programs, lost earnings, reduced tax receipts, and crime victim costs RISE expended about $5.7M on children receiving the full complement of services: tuition support, mentoring, academic support, and family support The total return on investment is approximately 10:1 ($56M/$5.7M)

Even at half this ROI, this would be considered a very effective prevention program *Belfield, Levin, Economic Value of Opportunity Youth; Kellogg Foundation, Jan 2012 5. The Real Return on Investment Being a part of RISE means a lot to me. It has changed me. If it had not been for RISE, I wouldn't be a student at Rocky Hill and I wouldnt be able to chase my dreams. This program has helped build my character and has started to shape my life. I like to think of RISE as a caring mother and no matter how hard I try, I can never fully thank her for what she has done in my life. - Nate But success is not just measured in dollars and cents; the stories of our children are the most compelling indicators of our success Jamal

Bianca Jamal's mother was incarcerated multiple times and his father was a recovering addict who gained sole custody of him when he was just 5 years old. Biancas mother was incarcerated over 20 times and was killed in a drug-related incident last year. Jamal became a RISE scholar in the 6th grade and graduated, thanks to RISE support, from Portsmouth Abbey in 2006. He went on to earn

a degree in Public Policy from Dickinson College in 2010 and is currently working toward his law degree at Suffolk University while he works at the Providence law firm Hinckley, Allen & Snyder. Bianca has had a RISE mentor since she was in the fourth grade; and a RISE Sponsor who contributed $4,000 a year so that Bianca l could go to a private high school that is far better than the school in her neighborhood. Bianca is now a junior at LaSalle

College in Philadelphia on a full scholarship and she aspires to be a lawyer. RISE has enabled almost 50 children to go on to college almost always the first in their families; some colleges are listed below With the help of RISE I am receiving a great education. But RISE also prepares us for the next step in life. For example, when I was in middle school, a staff member would visit me throughout the year to make sure I was on the right track. Last month, RISE organized a day where we visited Boston College, Boston University, and Harvard to get a feel for the types of colleges we might want to apply to. RISE has given children, like me, a chance of having the best education ever and I will be forever grateful the organization of RISE. Jocelyn I contribute to RISE because I know I am having a direct impact on an individual. When I get those report cards in the mail, I have experience in my hand that my money is changing a students life for the better. Robin, RISE Sponsor

6. How YOU Can Change a Childs Life To me education is important because without education, you have nothing. In my family, no one really went to school, not my dad, not my mom or my uncle. Most of them only got their GED. So if I were the first one to finish high school, I would be the first one in my family to actually finish high school and get past a GED. If I were to finish high school and move to college, I would be the first one in my family to go to college. I believe if I have a private school education, I will be able to support my mom and brothers and sisters. Also, my mom and dad would be proud of me for accomplishing what they couldnt do, for being a better person then they were in their past life. - Kedren How you can help RISE children succeed You can be a Sponsor and enable a child to go to an independent school A full Tuition Sponsorship is $4,000 a year for 4 years You can be a Co-Sponsor 2 sponsors join forces at $2,000/yr. we help with matchmaking You can be a Team Sponsor 3 or more sponsors join forces to support; be a team

captain and help organize the team or we can help Be a Mentor give the gift of time by spending 4 hours a month with a RISE child Be a Donor provide a donation of any size that supports our scholarship, mentoring or student and family support programs Be a Major Donor to create a Named Scholarship Matching Fund A Scholarship Matching Fund is a commitment of 25K a year for 4 years The Fund bares the name of that individual or firm John Smith Scholarship Fund The fund matches the contributions of Co-Sponsors and Team Sponsors to help increase the number of people who can sponsor Change a Life, Support RISE RISE offered me much more than a mentor and a scholarship. RISE was a family that gave me hope. They believed in me and this affirmed my own potential. - Tryene

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