Teenage Mothers & Breastfeeding

Teenage Mothers & Breastfeeding

Teenage Mothers & Breastfeeding Statistics More than 400,000 babies are born to teenagers in the United States every year National averages as of 2013: 60% of young females under the age of 20 breast feed 20% of these young women continue breastfeeding after 6 months Compared to: 80% of women over the age of 30 breastfeed and of those women 50 % are still breastfeeding after 6 months (Sipsma, 2013).

Breastfeeding Rate According to Smith the breastfeeding rate among adolescent mothers in the United States is low and has been dropping since 2003. Young women are less likely to breastfeed than older mothers and have a more rapid discontinuation rate.

A significant number of teen mothers have a low income and there is a strong association between living in poverty, crime, poor educational opportunities, teen pregnancy and low breastfeeding (Smith, Avery, & Gizlice, 2013). Barriers Common barriers for teenage breastfeeding include but are not limited to: Pain Latching difficulties Fatigue Poor milk supply Medical complications.

Factors associated with the lack of breastfeeding are being unmarried, low socioeconomic indicators (ie, Medicaid), negative health behaviors such as cigarette smoking and the lack of prenatal care. Environmental or Community Factors Lifestyle Education Support of Family and Friends Conditioning to the Parental Role Cultural Descriptors

Daley states that the fact is that 451,000 teens who are bearing children each year in the United States are more likely to be living in communities and environments where they experience the many stressors associated with poverty and that adolescent individuation is highly influenced by culture and social context, adolescents, especially during the middle and later stages, desire to spend more social time outside of the parental household, with their peers and friends (Daley, Sadler, & Reynolds, 2013).

Environment If a teenage mother lives in an environment where she is sees other mothers breastfeeding and she receives support she could be successful (Daley, Sadler, & Reynolds, 2013). Social support from families, friends, and partners are among the most important issues to a new teenage mother. They are often encouraged to bottle feed with formula because others are often uncomfortable with breastfeeding ( Smith, Avery, & Gizlice, 2013). Health Belief Model

The Health Promotion Model best supports promoting breast feeding among teenage mothers through education as it is applicable to any health behavior in which threat is not proposed as a major source of motivation for the behavior (Pender, 2011). The majority of teenagers having

children are at risk in several different ways: 1) They are often still children themselves and not emotionally and cognitively prepared to be parents. 2) Teen mothers may come from troubled backgrounds and have mental health issues that were present before the pregnancy, such as, depression, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and abuse. For Young Teenage Women: This is a natural time when

adolescents want to be spending more time with friends, but adolescent mothers may find themselves staying home and relying on their families for assistance, both financially and to assist with care for their child. This situation can prove to be stressful for families with limited space and financial concerns. (Daley, Sadler, &

Reynolds, 2013). Teenage View of Breastfeeding Some teen mothers react to the idea of breastfeeding as nasty and may feel embarrassed, especially if they would need to the feed the baby in a public place (Daley, Sadler, & Reynolds, 2013). Daley states this potential conflict can be seen in the reluctance on the part

of some teen mothers (especially when sexual abuse may have been part of their experience) to consider breastfeeding their infants. Plan of Action Plan of action to improve young females breastfeeding is education, women that are not exposed to breastfeeding information are very unlikely to breast feed. Several studies have shown that adolescent education on the benefits of breastfeeding increases breastfeeding initiation as well as duration (Apostolakis-Kyrus, 2013). The plan to implement this education is through:

* Improving school health curriculums which include breastfeeding * Focusing on a social marketing campaign on the benefits of breastfeeding * Increasing discussion and promotion of breastfeeding during Provider appointments and during hospitalization for birth. Objectives 1. To educate adolescent pregnant women about the benefits of breastfeeding (good effects for baby and cost effective). 2. Continuing to breast feed until at least 6 months.

These objectives can be achieved by encouraging providers to have a lactation consultant on staff so the benefits for breast feeding can be taught early in pregnancy. For those that don't seek out prenatal care school systems should be encouraged to include breastfeeding benefits in their health classes. Resources National La Leche League Local Lactation Specialists Local Low Cost Pregnancy & Birth Centers Setting for Health Promotion

Activity School-Based Programs Nurse-Managed Health Centers Health Departments During Prenatal Visits Hospitals After Delivery of the Newborn Teenage mothers often lack the knowledge base and skills to perform breastfeeding techniques successfully, and to incorporate these skills into their lives while attending school or working. (Smith, Avery, & Gizlice, 2013). Evaluating Objectives A way to evaluate these objectives would be to

survey pediatricians offices, not to violate HIPPA, just get a percentage of babies with mothers under the age of 19, how many are breastfeeding at 1st check up and at 6 months check up. Need to get a Provider to buy into the benefits of breastfeeding. It isnt enough for teenage mothers to comprehend the importance of breastfeeding on the health of their infants. They also have to combat the issues of trying to fit into society among their peers and feeling accepted, as well as the embarrassment

regarding the stigma of being a teenage mother (Smith, Avery, & Gizlice, 2013). References Aspostolakis-Kyrus, K., Valentine, C., DeFranco, E. (2013). Factors associated with breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers. The Journal of Pediatrics. Retrieved From http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jpeds.2013.06.027. Daley, MA, Sadler, L.S., & Reynolds H. D. (2013). Tailoring clinical services to address the antique needs of adolescents from the pregnancy test to parenthood. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care, 43:4. Retrieved from http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/439924069-12jorg=jouranl&source=MI&sp Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2011). Health promotion in nursing practice (6th ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Rousseau, E. H., Lescop, J. N., Fontaine, S., Lambert, J., Roy, C. C. (1982 October 15). Influence of cultural and environmental factors on breast-feeding. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 127(8): 701-704. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1862377/?page=1 Sipsma, H.L., Magriples, U., Divney, A., Gordon, D., Gabzdyl, E., Kershaw, T. (2013). Breastfeeding behavior amond adolescents: Initiation, Duration and Exclusivity. Journal of Adolescent Health. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.04.055. Smith, P.H., Coley, S.L., Labbok, M.H., Cupito, S., & Nwokah, E. (2012). Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study. International Breastfeeding Journal, 7:13. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-7-13

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