Syringe Access Programs Engagement Models and Interventions

Syringe Access Programs Engagement Models and Interventions

Syringe Access Programs Engagement Models and Interventions HIV Harm Reduction Navigator Training Commissioned by NYC DOH National Capacity Building Program for Health Departments and CBOs who have outreach staff and peers providing prevention services for people who use drugs. Particular focus on PWID and health care issues. Materials are drawn from HRCs long experience and other Harm Reduction program peer training programs. You are experts in the field no matter how long you have been doing outreach. Everyone brings relevant experiences & perspectives to this work.

1. Workshop Overview Group Agreements Step up, Step Back Non-Judgment Use I Statements

Agree to disagree Confidentiality WAIT/PUSH/ELMO Training Objectives By the end of this session you will be able to: 1.Describe the need for syringe access programs with

an evidence-based perspective. 2.Examine local and national SAPs within the context of harm reduction. 3.Discuss the benefits of SAPs and serving people who inject drugs. 4.Recall programmatic qualities of various SAP models. Agenda Syringe Access Programs 1 Workshop Overview

2 Harm Reduction & Syringe Access 3 Benefits of SAPs Break 4 Activity! 5

Syringe Access Models & Interventions 6 Closing & Evaluations Glossary PWIDPeople Who Inject Drugs PWUDPeople Who Use Drugs PLWHAPeople Living with HIV/AIDS SUDsSubstance Use Disorders SAS Syringe Access Services SEP Syringe Exchange Program

AOD Alcohol & Other Drugs Sexual Orientation >> to whom we are sexually attracted Gender Identity >> sense of self as male or female, neither or both

LGBTQI Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Transsexual, Two Spirited, Questioning, Intersex BRAINSTORM: What is Syringe Access? VIDEO The Exchange End the Ban on the Use of Federal Funds for Syringe Exchange (2013)

*thank you* amfAR and waterbound pictures 2. Harm Reduction & Syringe Access Working Definition of Harm Reduction A set of practical, public health strategies designed to reduce the negative consequences of drug use and promote healthy individuals and communities. Goals of Harm Reduction Increased health and well-being.

Increased self-esteem and self-efficacy. Better living situations. Reduced isolation and stigma.

Safer drug use. Reduced drug use and/or abstinence. HIV & Hepatitis C Rates 18000 Newly infected each year in the U.S. due to syringe and equipment sharing:

13500 HIV: 8,000 people Hep C: 30,000 Overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the US. 9000 4500 0

Source: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, AIDS United. HIV Hep C http://www.aidsunited.org/policy-advocacy/issues/syringe-exchange/ http://www.cdc.gov/idu/hepatitis/viral_hep_drug_use.htm http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Poisoning/brief_full_page.html HIV/Hep C Co-infection in the U.S. http://www.cdc.gov

HIV/Hep C Co-infection Snapshot Because HIV affects the immune system, it can affect the body's ability to fight off Hep C. Treatments for both can be affected if co-infected. Some HIV meds may less effective if also w. Hep C. Everyone's experience is different. Its important to discuss with your doctor what the options are and what to treat first. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Populations/PDFs/HIVandHep-FactSheet.pdf Drug Trend in the U.S. Opioid Epidemic Overdose in the U.S. Unintentional drug overdose deaths have tripled:

1999 (12,186) 2013 (43,982) Of 43,982 deaths, 22,767 were related to pharmaceutical overdoses in 2013. 71.3% involved opioid analgesics. Drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death, now surpassing motor vehicle accidents. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Vital Statistics System mortality data . (2015) Overdose Programs in the U.S. 1996-2010: Over 50,000 drug users, their friends, and family, are trained in overdose prevention + response.

1996-2010: Over 10,000 reversals reported.* 2010: 50 programs with 188 sites, in 16 states. 2012: 60 programs with approximately 200 sites in 18 states. 2014: More than triple the number of programs and sites, in 31 states** *http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6106.pdf **unpublished results of 2013 and 2014 U.S. naloxone programs survey, completed by the Harm Reduction Coalition Our Roots in Harm Reduction! How does this work? Doug Wilson

You give me an old one, I give you a sterile one, and it keeps your butt alive Dave Purchase handing out syringes on his own in Tacoma, Wash., in the late 1980s. New York Times, January 27, 2013 Syringe Access Meeting Needs of PWID: Considerations

Higher prevalence of mental health issues Higher prevalence of trauma Poor social supports Higher level of homelessness Higher levels of incarceration & recidivism Poor relationship with & access to healthcare system Higher prevalence of other health issues Drug User Health & HIV Prevention Issues

HIV/Hep C Co-infection HIV and Overdose 25-30% of HIV+ people are co-infected with Hep C. Overdose is a significant cause of mortality among HIV+ persons Hep C is the leading

cause of death for people with HIV. HIV infection puts PWID at greater risk of fatal overdose. Hep C infection can impact HIV treatment. Overdose prevention services can connect PWID to HIV prevention, care, and drug

treatment services. Sexual transmission of Hep C more likely for HIV+ persons. 40-90% of PWIDs have Hep C. Homelessness and Incarceration HIV prevalence is 3x higher in homeless population than the general population

1:7 people living with HIV will pass through a correctional facility each year. People receiving HIV care in prison have difficulty accessing medications upon release. (Open Society Foundations,: Why Overdose Matters, July 2010) (CDC: HIV in Correctional Settings, 2010) (CDC: HIV & Viral Hepatitis Fact Sheet, 2014)

Client-Centered AOD Treatment Issues Abstinence-based treatment is not always an option. Relapse is a part of the process. People may not be ready to quit or may choose not to. Providers can help to assess readiness and elicit change. Motivational Interviewing is an approach to support people in making their own decisions regarding their own drug and alcohol use behaviors.

SAPs: Meeting People Where They Are Started in Holland in the 1980s in response to a Hepatitis B outbreak. One of the first U.S. SAP started in Tacoma in 1988 in response to the AIDS crisis. (amfAR, 2014) Syringe Access Policies in U.S.

National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) 2020 Calls for minimizing HIV infection among PWIDs and other substance users. Specifically sites syringe exchange as an intervention that will reduce the HIV infection rate among PWIDs. National Hepatitis Plan 2011

Call to enhance PWID access to sterile syringes. Updated April 2014 SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Toolkit 2014 Encourages expanding access to naloxone for people at risk for overdose and their friends and family. Sources: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/national-hiv-aids-strategy/nhas-update.pdf http://www.hhs.gov/ash/initiatives/hepatitis/actionplan_viralhepatitis2011.pdf http:// store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA13-4742/Overdose_Toolkit_2014_Jan.pdf

U.S. Surgeon Generals Dr. David Satcher (1998-2002) Syringe exchange is an effective public health intervention that reduces the transmission of HIV and does not encourage the use of illegal drugs. Dr. Joyceln Elders (1993-1994) Silence about the importance of needle exchange programs is causing deaths of thousands of our bright young black and Latino men and women. Dr. C. Everett Keep (1982-1989) if clean needles will do anything to contain a part of the epidemic, we should not have any foolish inhibitions about doing so. 3. Benefits of Syringe Access Programs

Syringe Access Programs DO: X Decrease spread of HIV X Reduce risk for Hep C X Increase likelihood to link PWID w. care Syringe Access Programs DO NOT: X Encourage drug use X Increase inappropriately discarded syringes X Increase needle stick injuries Reduction in HIV Incidence Syringe access is the most effective, evidence-based HIV prevention tool for people who inject drugs.

Federal agencies for national health such as the CDC, SAMHSA, HRSA, and NIDA conclude the use of sterile syringes to prevent the spread of HIV and other bloodborne infectious diseases. PWID have reversed the course of the AIDS epidemic by using sterile syringes and harm reduction practices. Science-based Literature Review on SEPs in the United States 1996-2008. Joanna Berton Martinez Reduction in Hep C Transmission Risk Almost 1/3 of IDUs (31.8%) report sharing syringes and other equipment in U.S.* Many participants of SEPs are referred to Hep B vaccination series and Hep C treatment. Safer injecting equipment and education from an SEP assist IDU without Hep C to remain that way.

*HIV-Associated Behaviors among Injecting Drug Users23 Cities, United States, May 2005-Feb 2006;CDC MMWR; April 10, 2009; 58(13);329-333 Reduction of Needle Stick Injuries Building a connection with law enforcement! 30% of law enforcement officers have experienced a needle stick injury (NSI). 66% reduction in NSIs among law enforcement officers following the implementation of SAPs. Sources: Lorenz J, et al.

Occupational Needlestick Injuries in a Metropolitan Police Force. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 2000. 18:146-150. Groseclose SL, et al. Impact of Increased Legal Access to Needles and Syringes on Practices of Injecting Drug Users and Police Officers Connecticut 1992-1993; Journal of AIDS and Human Retrovirology; 10(1): 71-72. More Than Syringes

Detox and drug treatment programs Medical, dental & mental health services Bad Date Sheet Hep A + B Vaccinations HIV/Hep C services Housing services Safer sex supplies & education Overdose prevention Prevention for non-injectors Outreach & Engagement BREAK

4. Perspectives ACTIVITY Activity Law Enforcement Perspective PWID Perspective What might LE think of PWID? What might PWID think of law enforcement? What are their professional & personal concerns about

What are their personal PWID? concerns about law enforcement? How do these perspectives affect the way law How do these perspectives enforcement behaves when it affect the way PWID behave deals with PWID? when they deal with law enforcement? 5. SAP Models & Interventions

Storefront /Fixed Site Benefits House other services Shelter from streetbased activities Increased privacy On-site storage space Creating safe space

Challenges Limited access (hours, location) Clients must come to you High overhead and upkeep Potential focus of community opposition

Street-Based Benefits Flexibility if drug scene changes More acceptable to neighborhood

Informal, low-threshold Meeting people where they are physically at Challenges Hard to include ancillary services

Inclement weather can be a deterrent Privacy concerns Safety for outreach staff Peer-Delivered Benefits

Taps into peer knowledge Can reach groups unlikely to access SAPs Empowers peers to take ownership Increased volume Challenges

Training & supervision needed for peers Managing boundary issues Peers may need to collect and transport others equipment Pharmacy Access Benefits

Mainstream location May have more extended hours Could be located closer to where PWID live or hang out Challenges

Pharmacists often refuse to sell syringes without a prescription Cost can be prohibitive No counseling services Other injection equipment not available No disposal options

Characteristics of Effective SAPs Ensures low-threshold access to services. Promotes secondary syringe distribution. Coordinates linkages to health and social services. Ensures PWID have a VOICE. Includes diverse community stakeholders in creating a social

and legal environment supportive of SAPs and PWID. Includes participants in improving on existing services. How can this be achieved in your area? Recommended Best Practices for Effective Syringe Exchange Programs in the in the United States: 2009 SEP Practices to Avoid Supplying single use syringes Limiting frequency of visits & number of syringes

Requiring one-for-one exchange Imposing geographic limits Restricting syringe volume with unnecessary maximums

Requiring identifying docs. Requiring unnecessary data documentation Basic Equipment Basic Equipment o Syringes in various sizes o Cookers o Cottons/Filters o Tourniquets/Ties

o Health education literature o Narcan kits o Sterile water o Alcohol swabs o Condoms, safer sex supplies o Gauze pads, bandages, abscess kits o Bleach kits o Fit Packs/Sharps Containers o Safer Smoking Kits/

Crack Kits Best Practices Handling Sharps & Hazardous Waste Preventing needle-stick injury is everyone's responsibility, including staff, volunteers, & participants - EVERYBODY Wear closed toe shoes Know your agencys accidental needle-stick protocols Work in 2s Have latex or alternative gloves within reach Tongs, paper towels, bleach/water spray bottle, too Keep syringe disposal/access area clean & well-lit Best Practices Handling Sharps & Hazardous Waste

If you have to pick up a used syringe by the barrel always put on gloves first Complete your 3-shot Hep B vaccination series Always keep sharps container on a flat surface Wash hands before + after each shift Never insert hands or push fingers into sharps Switch out container when 3/4 full Secure sharps container + lid for travel Best Practices Handling Sharps & Hazardous Waste Safety Tips for Clients

Re-cap syringes prior to returning Transport used syringes in hard plastic container w. a lid Ex: sharps container, fit pack, soda/detergent/bleach/milk bottle

At the program, participants dispose of their own syringes, not staff Reflective Practice: Syringe Access Identify Which SAP Models would engage program participants most effectively? What are challenges you may encounter? What strategies could improve engagement? Explain Describe gaps in services that youve observed in your role at the agency, or from participant feedback. Apply What specifically do you feel you can do now to ensure

effective engagement & service delivery? 6. Closing & Evaluations Anonymous Surveys: Put completed surveys in the folder HRC thanks you for participating in this workshop!

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