Swine Reproduction and Production Management No Small Subject Important References LSU Therio Phillip Hoyt: www.vetmed.lsu.edu/eiltslotus/theriogenology-5361/swine%20theriogen ology_2.html
Other: American College of Theriogenologists and Society for Theriogenology and American Association of Swine Practitioners. Proceedings of Swine Reproduction Symposium, August, 1996. Kirkwood, R.N.; Thacker, P.A.: Increasing Reproductive Performance. Large Animal Veterinarian, pp. 26-32, September / October 1988 Kirkwood, R.N.; Thacker, P.A.: Gilt Management Tips. Hog Farm Management, pp. 25-28, May 1988 Almond, G.W.; Dial, G.D.: Pregnancy Diagnosis in Swine: Principles, Applications, and Accuracy of Available Techniques. JAVMA, 191(7):858-870, Oct. 1, 1987
McDonald, L. E.: Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction, 1971 Pond, W. G.; Houpt, K. A.: The Biology of the Pig Pond, W. G.; Maner, J. H.: Swine Production in Temperate and Tropical Environments Wrathall, A. E.: Prenatal Survival in Pigs: Part I Wrathall, A. E.: Reproductive Disorders in Pigs Marrow, D.A.: Current Therapy in Theriogenology Reproductive Examination of the Boar. Journal of the Society for Theriogenology, Volume XIII Swine Breeds Chester White
Hampshire Duroc Yorkshire Reproductive Goals/Facts 114 day Gestation (3/3/3) 21 day Lactation
5 day Rebreeding 140 Day Farrowing Interval 2.6 Litters/year X 12 weaned pigs/sow = 31.2 pigs weaned per sow per year Gilts about 5 less Mating Systems Double mating 12 and 24 hr intervals Increased CR, Litter Size
Pen Mating/Pasture Breeding 1 boar per 10 sows q 23-45 days (cont farrow) Adv/Disdvantages Hand Mating Estrus sows taken to breeding pen (boar) AI Female Anatomy
Can be Delayed/Hastened by # of Factors Inbreeding, nutrition, confinement, lighting, boar exposure Earlier in Boar Estrous Cycle 21 days Proestrus 1-3 days Alert to boar but will not accept
Estrus 3-4 days Physical and behavioral signs Ovulation occurs mid-late estrus Diestrus 14 days Metestrus 2 days Estrous Cycle
Ovulation and Fertilization Ovulation - last 1/3 estrus q 2hrs Rates Avg 17 sows 13 Gilts (Heritable) Fertilization - All or non response Optimal breeding is 12-24 hrs after start estrus Sperm viable for 24 hrs 1st Serv CR 70 90% (preg rate?)
EED 30-40% between day 1 114 50% during 1st 25 days Intrauterine migration Migrate up to 12 days Need 4 viable embryos for MRP day 12 Need 2 viable embryos for MRP day 30 Preg Detection
Non Return to Estrus US at 30-90 days (preg/open) Rectal palp? Parturition - Farrowing Can induce PGF2 10mg at day 112 gestation 60-90% farrow within 18-36 hrs Duration 2- 24 hours 2 piglets/hour
Lactation Colostrum Important Milk let down 28 sec Nurse every hour
32 hours to establish teat order Estrus Synch - Sows Primarily done by weaning (18-24 days) 10 mg PGF2within 24 hrs post farrowing and 5 ml PG 600 at weaning (reduces anestrous) PG 600 = 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG mimicks FSH and LH
Estrus Sync - Gilts Various protocols PG 600 5-6 months old = 50-70% estrus in 5-7 days (often DNB) PG 600 (day 0) + Lut (day 18) = estrus (day 20-25) = Pig Sync? Feed progestin (Penmatetm Regumatetm) day 0-21 + lute day 35 =
estrus day 37-42 Reproductive Problems Many management and breed factors Repro tract deformities common in gilts 5-10% Disease(s) SMEDI Syndrome Stillborn, mummies, ED, infertility
Viral and Bacterial Causes Humans Viral Repro Disease Syndrome I Fatal to embryo or fetus but dam normal True abortion rare = more EED Parvo, enterovirus, Jap B encephilitis Syndrome II
Maternal morbidity, late term abortion Psuedorabies, hog cholera, swine influenza Bacterial Repro Disease Lepto typical serovars Mild signs in adults, typical pathogenesis Abortion, mummification, stillbirths Vaccine available Brucellosis
EED and abt Eradication and reportable Male repro facts Semen 3 fractions- presperm, sperm, postsperm gel 250 mls with 150 500 X 109 cells Ejaculation pressure dependent 3-20 minutes AI with fresh chilled semen common
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