Sutherland Phonological Awareness TestRevised Tuning in Definitions Phonemic awareness Awareness of individual sounds.
Phonics Knowledge of letter-sound patterns; linking sounds with letter. Orthographic knowledge Patterns of letters used in written English to write words (graphemes), letter- cluster knowledge
(diagraphs). The SPAT Test-Dr Roslyn Neilson Language , Speech and Literacy Services Jamberoo, NSW First published ;May,2003 Reprinted January 2005, November 2007 Copyright:2003 Roslyn Neilson Contact details: Email:[email protected]
How does it all fit? What is Phonological Knowledge? Phonological Knowledge is the foundation of our understanding of how spoken words translate into written words. Phonological Knowledge is what we know about the sound patterns in our words.
What is Phonological knowledge? We use it in a range of ways: Unlock the alphabet Learn new words. Help remember information for a short time. When we read segmenting, blending, manipulating sounds. When we spell Phonological Awareness Phonological awareness is an awareness of sound
and an awareness that words: can be broken up into syllables, (hos-pit-al) can rhyme, (can, fan, man) can start with the same sound, (never, naughty) can be broken up into first sound or sounds and the rime pattern eg.(s-and) (st-and), can be formed by blending separate sounds together eg.(f-i-s-h or f-ish makes fish) can be segmented into separate sounds (s-a-n-d), can be changed around by adding, removing or reordering sounds to make new words (minus s, sand =
and, change a to e sand = send) Development of Phonological Awareness Word awareness Syllable awareness Early
Rhyme awareness Segmenting into onset-rime Segmenting first and last sounds
Blending sounds Late Segmenting words Manipulating sounds
Assessing phonological awareness efficiently: A knowledge of why particular skills are being assessed What should be expected of children at different stages of development How the task format can effect performance
Subtests 1-11 are auditory tests (no reading or written responses) Assesses the following phonological awareness skills
Syllable counting rhyme detection and production identification of initial and final consonants deletion of onsets deletion of consonants within blends including consonants on the outer boundary of syllables and internal consonants SPAT-R subtests
Subtests 12 and 13 involved the reading and spelling of nonwords CVC syllable (sut) single syllables with initial and or final consonant blends (trop, belk) vowel digraph that can be read or spelled with analogy to a real word (vouse) 2 syllable nonword with consonant blends (mitspon) 3 syllable nonword without intra-syllabic consonant blends (despintal)
Materials needed for the SPAT The SPAT-R Manual The Stimulus Sheet Booklet Test booklet or a screening scoresheet 2 forms form A and form B- recommended
that a different form is used if a child is retested on the SPAT-R within 6 months The Stimulus sheet booklet Subtest/s Description 1
Drums for syllable counting 2 Pictures for rhyme detection 7 and 8 Boxes for phoneme segmentation 12
Nonwords:reading 13 Instructions for nonword spelling. This sheet is not shown to the child. Demonstration, Practice and Test Items
Subtests 1-11 1 demonstration item 1 practice item 4 test items Discontinuation Guidelines: Discontinue any individual subtest if: Child does not respond to teaching on the practice items
AND fails the first 2 test items Demonstration, Practice and Test Items Subtest 12 and 13 8 test items no demonstration or practice items Discontinuation Guidelines: Discontinue either subtest if:
Child has no strategies for attempting the first two items The child seems stressed Continue if: incorrect response, but signs of partial processing 1.Syllable counting. Orients the child to the process of attending to the sounds in words, rather than to their meaning.
When finding this subtest difficult, a student may show some articulation problems, especially with multisyllabic words. 2.Rhyme detection.. Undemanding in terms of cognitive requirements and memory load Uses pictures to support the students memory for the rhyming words
Very sensitive to the presence of oral language difficulties In the lower years of schooling it is often a marker for students with reading difficulties Students who do not have awareness of rhyming features of language will often give semantically related answers e.g. night, fight, pillow If students are ok on rhyme detection task, but not on rhyme production task, this may indicate the effects of word retrieval difficulties
4.CVC blending.. This task has a high correlation to the SPATR total score. This means that if the student has difficulties on this task, they are likely to score poorly overall. If students perform strongly on this subtest it can indicate a students strong emerging control over phonological awareness 5.Onset identification Children who cannot identify onsets early
in their school career are particularly at risk for experiencing difficulties in their literacy development- Ref: Byrne,1998 Potential difficulties with learning the alphabet Phoneme vs letter 6.Final phoneme identification It cannot be assumed that once a child can
identify the sound at the beginning of a word, the sound at the end of a word will be equally accessible Phoneme vs letter 7.CVC segmentation Segmentation and blending are complementary skills Say it and move it technique Potential problems with this test 1.identification of a nasal consonant after a
vowel 2. Students who are able to visualise the spelling of the words may possibly be confused about whether they are working with sounds or letters 8.Segmentation blends In the lower years of schooling students find
it difficult to identify the separate sounds in consonant blends. This is normally a late developing phonological skill (Treiman,1993) 9.Deletion-onset
A robust indicator of phonological awareness development Ref:Catts,Fey,Zhang&Tomblin,2001 The emergence of this skill by the end of YOS 1 or early in YOS 2 is a good indicator that a child is making reasonable progress If a child is unable to access and manipulate the sound of the rime unit as an independent chunk of a word, they may experience difficulties with identifying word families in
spelling tasks 10.Deletion- boundary consonant Issue of task complexity- leading to errors Requires the student to be aware of the internal sounds in consonant blends Students with less experience may delete the whole onset- this indicates that the separate sounds in the consonant blend are not particularly salient to them
11.Deletion internal consonant Student has to segment , delete and then blend phonemes 12.Non-word reading Use of the nonword spelling analysis
Allows clear demonstration of consonant blend segmentation skills Is particularly sensitive to emerging skills of phoneme segmentation in the early years of school 13.Nonword spelling
Analysis of non word spelling form So what? To clarify student specific needs Analysis of the data Use of normative table Links with other data Reference to developmental sequence Determine priorities for support and practice Review regularly rate of gain
We must not, in trying to think about how we can make a big difference, ignore the small daily differences we can make which, over time, add up to big differences that we often cannot foresee. Ref:Marian Wright Edelman
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