Strategic Management- Chapter Twelve

Strategic Management- Chapter Twelve

STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATI ON CHAPTER 12 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP Authored by: Marta Szabo White, PhD. Georgia State University THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES Define strategic leadership and describe top-level managers

importance. Explain what top management teams are and how they affect firm performance. Describe the managerial succession process using internal and external managerial labor markets. Discuss the value of strategic leadership in determining the firms strategic direction. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES Describe the importance of strategic leaders in managing the firms resources. Define organizational culture and explain what must be done to sustain an effective culture.

Explain what strategic leaders can do to establish and emphasize ethical practices. Discuss the importance and use of organizational controls. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. OPENING CASE SUCCESSION AT HP: CAN THE NEW CEO SAVE THE COMPANYS SOUL? HPs culture of innovation suffered under Mark Hurd, the former CEOs leadership. Hurd was efficiency oriented and had made the company money by tightly controlling costs.

Former SAP CEO Leo Apotheker was named as CEO successor and had the opportunity to reboot the company and its culture. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. OPENING CASE SUCCESSION AT HP: CAN THE NEW CEO SAVE THE COMPANYS SOUL? Having lost its culture of innovation, HPs strategic redirection into software and cloud computing needed to be successful. With a merciless market, the expectation of strong performance exists even though major strategic changes take time to produce fruitful results. Apothekers strategic leadership is

being tested in the midst of layoff rumors and profit target reductions. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. INTRODUCTION Effective strategic leadership is the foundation for successfully using the strategic management process. Strategic leaders guide the firm in ways that result in forming a vision and mission. This guidance often finds leaders thinking of ways to create goals that stretch everyone in the organization to improve performance. Moreover, strategic leaders facilitate the development of appropriate strategic actions and determine how to implement them.

Leaders can make a major difference in how a firm performs. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE Strategic leadership: the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create strategic change as necessary Multifunctional task Managing through others

Managing an entire enterprise rather than a functional subunit Coping with change that is increasing in the global economy Most critical skill: attracting and managing human (includes intellectual) capital NOTE: Many examples of well-known CEOs are mentioned throughout the chapter to illustrate their leadership styles. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE FIGURE 12.1 Strategic Leadership and the Strategic Management Process

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE EFFECTIVE STRATEGIC LEADERS Build strong ties with external stakeholders to gain access to information and advice Understand how their decisions impact their firm Sustain above-average performance

Attract and manage human capital Do not delegate decision-making responsibilities Inspire and enable others to do excellent work and realize their potential 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. THE ROLE OF TOP-LEVEL MANAGERS Managers use their discretion when making strategic decisions Primary factors that determine the amount of a managers

decision-making discretion External environmental sources Organizations characteristics Managers characteristics 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FACTORS AFFECTING MANAGERIAL DISCRETION FIGURE 12.2 Factors Affecting Managerial Discretion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FACTORS AFFECTING MANAGERIAL DISCRETION External Environment

Industry structure Rate of market growth Number and type of competitors Nature and degree of political/legal constraints Degree to which products can be differentiated 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FACTORS AFFECTING

MANAGERIAL DISCRETION External Environment Characteristics of the Organization Size Age Culture Availability of resources Patterns of interaction among employees

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FACTORS AFFECTING MANAGERIAL DISCRETION External Environment Characteristics of the Organization Characteristics of the Manager Tolerance for ambiguity Commitment to the firm

and its desired strategic outcomes Interpersonal skills Aspiration level Degree of self-confidence 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FACTORS AFFECTING MANAGERIAL DISCRETION External Environment Characteristics of the Organization Characteristics of the Manager Managerial Discretion

The degree of latitude for action when making strategic decisions, especially those concerned with effective implementation of strategies How managers exercise discretion when determining appropriate strategic actions is critical to the firms success 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. TOP MANAGEMENT TEAMS Top Management Teams

Help avoid potential problem of CEO making decisions alone: managerial hubris Hubris: excessive pride leading to a feeling of invincibility Hubris can magnify the effects of decision-making biases Composed of key individuals who are responsible for selecting and implementing firms strategies; usually includes officers of the corporation (VP and above) and BOD 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM, FIRM PERFORMANCE, AND STRATEGIC CHANGE Heterogeneous team: individuals with varied functional backgrounds, experiences, and education Team members: bring a variety of strengths, capabilities, and knowledge and provide effective strategic leadership when faced with complex environments and multiple stakeholder relationships to manage 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM, FIRM PERFORMANCE, AND STRATEGIC CHANGE A HETEROGENEOUS TEAM

Introduces a variety of perspectives Has a greater propensity for strong competitive action Outside of the box thinking," leads to more creative decision making, innovation, and strategic change Offers various areas of expertise to identify environmental opportunities, threats, or the need for change Promotes debate, which leads to better strategic decisions, and higher firm performance May take longer to reach consensus

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. THE CEO AND TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM Higher performance is achieved when the POWER board of directors (BOD) is more directly involved in shaping strategic direction A powerful CEO may: Appoint sympathetic outside board members Have inside board members who report to the CEO

Have long tenure, thus have greater influence on board decisions Be virtually independent of oversight by the BOD May also hold the position of chairman of the board (CEO duality) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. THE CEO AND TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM POWER CEO Duality CEO serves as CEO and BOD

More common in the United States Occurs most often in the largest firms Increased shareholder activism recently brought the practice under scrutiny Criticized for causing poor performance and slow response to change BALANCE OF POWER BETWEEN THE BOD AND TOP MANAGEMENT IMPACTED BY: Resource abundance Environmental volatility and uncertainty 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. MANAGERIAL

SUCCESSION DEFINITION: preselect and shape the skills of tomorrows leaders Internal managerial labor market: opportunities for managerial positions to be filled from within the firm External managerial labor market: opportunities for managerial positions to be filled by candidates from outside of the firm This decision impacts company performance and the ability to embrace change in today's competitive landscape

Succession, top management team composition, and strategy are intimately related 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. FIGURE 12.3 EFFECTS OF CEO SUCCESSION AND TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM COMPOSITION ON STRATEGY Effects of CEO Succession and Top Management Team Composition on Strategy 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. MANAGERIAL SUCCESSION Benefits of Internal Managerial Labor Market Continuity Continued commitment Familiarity Reduced turnover Retention of private knowledge Favored when the firm is performing well

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. MANAGERIAL SUCCESSION Benefits of External Managerial Labor Market Long tenure with the same firm is thought to reduce innovation Outsiders bring diverse knowledge bases and social networks, which offer the potential for synergy and new competitive advantages Fresh paradigms

Note: Opportunity cost for firms: Women as strategic leaders have 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Certain actions characterize effective strategic leadership These actions interact with each other The most effective strategic leaders create options as the foundation for making effective decisions 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. EXERCISE OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP FIGURE 12.4 Exercise of Effective Strategic Leadership 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Determining Strategic Direction The strategic direction is framed within the context of the conditions (i.e., opportunities and threats) strategic leaders expect their firm to face in the next 3-5 years Ideal long-term strategic direction has two parts:

Core ideology Envisioned future Serves as a guide to a firms strategy implementation process, including motivation, leadership, employee 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Effectively Managing the Firms Resource Portfolio Most important task - effectively managing the firms portfolio of resources Resources defined as financial, human, social, and organizational capital

Effective strategic leaders manage their firms resource portfolio by: Organizing the resources into capabilities Structuring the firm to facilitate using those capabilities Managing each type of resource as well as the integration of resources, e.g., using financial capital to enhance human capital capabilities (training and development) Choosing strategies through which the capabilities are successfully leveraged to create value for customers 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC

LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Exploiting and Maintaining Core Competencies Core competencies Resources and capabilities that serve as a source of competitive advantage for a firm over its rivals Relate to an organizations functional skills, such as manufacturing, finance, marketing, and research and development Leadership must verify that the firms competencies are emphasized when implementing strategy 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Developing Human Capital and Social Capital Human capital: knowledge and skills of a firms entire workforce, requiring investment in training and development Social capital: relationships inside and outside the firm that help it accomplish tasks and create value for customers and shareholders Cooperative strategies, e.g., strategic alliances, may leverage

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Developing Human Capital and Social Capital Firms with strong social capital can access multiple capabilities, providing them with important flexibility to take advantage of opportunities and respond to challenges Social capital created through alliances is pivotal to: Large multinational firms when entering new foreign markets Entrepreneurial firms for 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Sustaining an Effective Organizational Culture Organizational culture: the complex set of ideologies, symbols, and core values shared throughout the firm Influences the way business is conducted Helps regulate and control employees behavior Strong organizational culture may be a competitive advantage 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Sustaining an Effective Organizational Culture ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET Source of growth and innovation May be encouraged and promoted by strategic leaders An organizational culture can encourage (or

discourage) strategic leaders from pursuing (or not pursuing) entrepreneurial opportunities Fostering an Entrepreneurial Mind-Set: Five Dimensions Autonomy Innovativeness Risk taking Proactiveness Competitive aggressiveness 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: FIVE DIMENSIONS AUTONOMY

Employees are allowed to take actions that are free of organizational constraints; permits individuals and groups to be selfdirected 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: FIVE DIMENSIONS AUTONOMY INNOVATIVENESS Reflects a firms tendency to engage in and support

new ideas, novelty, experimentation, and creative processes that may result in new products, services, or technological processes Cultures with a tendency toward innovativeness encourage employees to think beyond existing knowledge, technologies, and parameters to find creative ways to add value 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: FIVE DIMENSIONS AUTONOMY INNOVATIVENESS

RISK TAKING Reflects a willingness by employees and their firm to accept risks when pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities Examples of RISKS Assuming significant levels of debt Allocating large amounts of resources to projects that may not be completed 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: FIVE DIMENSIONS AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS RISK TAKING PROACTIVENESS Ability to be a market leader rather than a follower Proactive organizational cultures constantly use processes to anticipate future market needs and to satisfy them before competitors learn how to do so 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: FIVE DIMENSIONS AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS RISK TAKING PROACTIVENESS COMPETITIVE AGGRESSIVENESS Propensity to take actions that allow the firm to consistently and substantially outperform its rivals. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Sustaining an Effective Organizational Culture

CHANGING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND RESTRUCTURING More difficult to change culture than maintain it Sometimes change must occur Effective strategic leaders recognize when change in culture is needed Requires effective communicating and problem solving Selecting the right people Engaging in effective performance appraisals Measuring individual performance toward goals that fit with new values Using appropriate reward systems 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Emphasizing Ethical Practices

Effectiveness of strategy implementation processes increases when based on ethical practices Ethical practices create social capital and goodwill for the firm 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Emphasizing Ethical Practices Actions that foster an ethical organizational culture:

Establish and communicate ethics-related goals Revise, update, and disseminate code of conduct Develop and implement methods and procedures to use in achieving firms ethical standards Create/use specific reward systems that recognize acts of courage Create a working environment where all are treated with dignity 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

Controls: formal, information-based procedures used by managers to maintain or alter patterns in organizational activities Controls help strategic leaders: Build credibility Demonstrate the value of strategies to the firms stakeholders Promote and support strategic change 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls Financial Controls Focus on short-term financial outcomes

Produce risk-averse managerial decisions because financial outcomes may be caused by events beyond managers direct control Strategic Controls Focus on the content of strategic actions rather than their outcomes Encourage decisions that incorporate moderate and 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

THE BALANCED SCORECARD Framework to evaluate if firms have achieved the appropriate balance among the strategic and financial controls to attain the desired level of firm performance Most appropriate for evaluating businesslevel strategies; it can also be used with the other strategies firms implement (e.g., corporate-level, international, and cooperative) Prevents overemphasis of financial controls at the expense of strategic controls 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls THE BALANCED SCORECARD Premise is that firms jeopardize their future performance when financial controls are emphasized at the expense of strategic controls This is because financial controls focus on historical outcomes, and do not address future performance drivers An overemphasis on financial controls may promote managerial behavior that sacrifices long-term, value-creating potential for shortterm performance gains An appropriate balance of strategic controls and financial controls, rather than an overemphasis on either, allows firms to achieve higher levels of performance 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls THE BALANCED SCORECARD

Four perspectives of the balanced scorecard Financial Customer Internal Business Processes Learning and Growth 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. STRATEGIC CONTROLS AND FINANCIAL CONTROLS IN A BALANCED SCORECARD FRAMEWORK FIGURE 12.5 Strategic Controls and Financial Controls in a Balanced Scorecard Framework 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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