Social Policy Workshop -Afghanistan

Social Policy Workshop -Afghanistan

Good practices and new initiatives on social security policy Gabriele Khler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex ILO/ITC Academy on Social Security: A Modular Approach for Individual Learning Needs Elective course 8 Summary day (wrap up) Turin, 24-27 September 2012 Overview: 1) The current international development situation 2) Rights, principles, frameworks 3) Good practices and new initiatives on social protection policies

4) Summary: Innovative social protection and a vision towards & beyond 2015 1) The current international development situation the rationale for social protection Current international development situation: human development/income poverty/inequity Human development at aggregate level: slow but steady improvement Human Development Index, trends 1970-2010

Current international development situation: human development/income poverty Absolute number and share of extremely poor people has declined since 1990 globally But increased number of poor in several regions Income inequality and poverty (OECD) Vulnerable employment Working poverty trends Working poverty trends Lack of decent work

Share of Working Children, ages 5-11 & 5-14 in percent of age cohort 16 Social exclusions manifest in every society GENDER

Income/economic class Ethnicity Religion Language Caste/clan Geographic location/urban vs rural Citizenship and migration status Health condition/communicable/visible diseases Ability/disability Menstruation Sexual orientation Looks

Recurrent emergency situations Conflict situation Age Total Natural disasters (1980-2011) Geophysical events (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes) Metrological events (Storms) Hydrological events (floods, land mass movements)

Climatological events (temperature extremes, droughts, forest fires) 19 Global trends in armed conflicts (1946-2011) 20 Refugees and Displaced Populations (1964-2008) In brief: some numbers for reflection

Almost 1 billion people live with hunger 1.2 billion people survive with less than $1.25 per person per day 2.5 billion people have less than $2.50 per day 1.5 billion in vulnerable employment 200 million international migrants 740 million people are internal migrants 26 million people internally displaced because of conflict or climate change

14 million refugees living outside their country of citizenship 45 million youth entrants to labour market annually 175 million children affected by climate change Health protection legal provision Social protection in case of unemployment Maternity benefits Old age pension coverage 2) Rights, principles, frameworks QUICK QUIZ: What is this text? Whenaswas

it written? Everyone, a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to the realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Right to Social Protection Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): Article 22: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security. ILO Convention 102: Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102) Outlines rights to benefits for residents of a country Right to Social Protection International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966): Article 9: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social

insurance. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989): Article 26: States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law. Normative frameworks: recent UN trends Global Social Floor Initiative since 2001 ILO Recommendation on Social Protection for all. Rec 202 (ILC June 2012) World Health Assembly 2008 - return to Alma Ata vision of primary health care for all Right to food, FAO Committee on World Food Security, May 2012 adopted Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the

Context of National Food Security Normative frameworks: recent UN trends MDGs 2010: more emphasis on equity, inclusion, human rights OHCHR Special rapporteurs on human rights including right to food and right to highest attainable standards of health Rio + 20 Summit: outcome document: The Future We Want refers to social protection OHCHR Special Rapporteurs/Independent Experts on human rights

right to education; human rights and extreme poverty; right to food; right to adequate housing; access to safe drinking water and sanitation; against violence against women; physical and mental health; economic policies and debt; TNCs; and other substantive normative areas. Social protection: UNICEF

the set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation. Principles of child-sensitive social protection Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social and economic risks that directly affect children's lives.

Intervene as early as possible where children are at risk Consider the age- and gender-specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life- cycle. Mitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families Make special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded Consider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics Include the voices and opinions of children, their caregivers and youth Social protection: World Bank Social protection and labor systems, policies, and programs help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty and destitutionthrough instruments that improve resilience, equity,

and opportunity. Social protection and labor practice will help countries move from fragmented approaches toward more coherent systems for social protection and labor, and help to make these more responsive, productive and inclusive. Social protection: ADB

a basic human right and a social necessity to combat poverty and inequality. promotes human well-being, inclusive growth, political stability, and social cohesion can reduce inequality, including that between the sexes. is critical for achieving the MDGs. is a key pillar of inclusive growth is affordable. is an investment to lift and keep people out of poverty. contributes to gender equity Social protection: EU 2012

a human right social justice and equity, rather than growth target the poor - obligation of authorities towards their citizens investment in present citizenry and future generations reduce the vulnerability and poverty of those excluded or marginalised from economic activity; serve as an important instrument of investment in human capital a multidimensional concept that should be integrated with political, economic and social goals Social protection: MDGs 2010 Social protection: ILO a set of public initiatives that provide income or consumption

transfers to the poor, protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks, enhance the social status and promote the rights of the marginalised, with the overall objective of reducing their economic and social vulnerability. (ILO) ILO Convention 102: Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102) flagship of all ILO social security Conventions international instrument, based on basic social secur

ity principles establishes worldwide-agreed minimum standards fo r all nine branches of social security medical care; sickness benefit; unemployment benefit; old-age benefit; employment injury benefit; family benefit; maternity benefit;

invalidity benefit; survivors' benefit. Regional and global consultation process 8th European Regional Meeting (Lisbon) Arab Employment Forum (Beirut) General discussion on social security during 90th Session of the ILC

Launch of the Global Campaign on Social Security and Coverage for All 2001 2003 Social security: A new consensus 2006 Policy

consultation: Social Security for All: Investing in Global and Economic Development Regional meeting on the future of social security in Latin America (Santiago de Chile) Regional meetings in

the Arab States (Amman), and Asia and Pacific (New Delhi) Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Strategies for the Extension of Social Security Coverage 2nd African Decent Work Symposium,

Yaound, (Yaound Tripartite Declaration on the Implementation of the Social Protection Floor) 2007 2008 2009 2010 Policy briefings: Social Health

Protection , Social Security Standards, Affordability of Basic Social Security Social Protection Floor Initiative reflected in Global Jobs Pact and endorsed by UN CEB Independent evaluation of the ILOs

strategy to extend the coverage of social security World Social Security Report 2010/11 Recurrent Discussion on Social Protection (Social Security), 100th Session of the ILC 2011

Social Protection floors ILOs two-dimensional strategy for the extension of social security: Building comprehensive social security systems Vertical dimension: progressively ensuring higher levels of protection, guided by Convention No.102 and more advanced standards high Voluntary insurance

under government regulation level of protection Social security benefits of guaranteed levels floor level Social Protection Floor: Access to essential health care and basic income security for all low low Outcomes can

be guaranteed through different means individual/household income high Horizontal dimension: Guaranteeing access to essential health care and minimum income security for all, guided by Recommendation No. 202 44 ILOs two-dimensional strategy for the extension of social security: Building comprehensive social security systems high Vertical dimension: progressively

ensuring higher levels of protection, guided by Convention No.102 and more advanced standards extension strategy level of protection Voluntary insurance under government regulation Social security benefits of guaranteed levels

floor level Social Protection Floor: Access to essential health care and basic income security for all low low individual/household income high Outcomes can be Socialguaranteed Protection Floor Recommendation, adopted through different at ILC means

2012 there is no one-size-fits-all Horizontal dimension: Guaranteeing access to essential health care and minimum income security for all, guided by Recommendation No. 202 45 Beyond social protection: the decent work agenda oKeynesian approach active labour market policies & fiscal space oRights-based emphasis on productive employment, core labour standards, social

dialogue Rights 3 Principles 1. Inclusion, equality - universality Every human being is equally entitled to social protection This implies universal programmes 2. Citizenship and participation Involves negotiating specific entitlements that all citizens can claim such as free education Social contract between the states and its citizens Some countries apply SP to all residents. 3. Obligation and accountability Ability and willingness of the state to deliver SP under its human rights obligations Requires transparency and accountability good governance

and administrative capacity Social insu rance Social assistance Povert y allev iation Health access Educati on access Old age

Social pensio ns Maternity and young children Family benefit s Subsid ies Educati on grants

Poverty, Un/underemployment Basic income grants Social insura nce Educati on grants Special situations Employ ment

access Emer gencies Adap tive climate change Social exclu sion Incen tives for agricult ure Cash for work

Public works Assets/ supplies ; Food for work Geog raphical targe ting; Educa tion grants Typology of social protection Transformative Social Protection

Transformation a structural problem: people are chronically poor and vulnerable because they are Systemically disadvantaged Transformative measures seek to address vulnerabilities arising from social inequity and exclusion Directly: o Minimum wage legislation & workers rights o Access to productive assets and capital Indirectly: o Making social protection transfers transformative e.g. cash transfers aimed at addressing marginalisation Comprehensive Framework for Social Protection Promotive Transformative Economic

opportunities Social transformation Preventive Insurance mechanisms Rachel SabatesWheeler/ Stephen Devereux. IDS Protective Social assistance DISCUSSION I

What are the social protection programmes in your country? What are their vision, objectives, key design elements, scale, outcomes, uniqueness Social security Social assistance Special situations Task: Individual reflection/quick list (5 minutes) Pair discussion (10 minutes) Collect in plenary (10 minutes) Debate and summary (5 minutes) 3) Good practices and

new initiatives on social security policy Latin America Many countries in Latin America run large conditional cash transfer programmes to address income poverty Conditionalities aiming to produce behavioural change and achieve direct and indirect outcomes. E.g, health and education non-income effects Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America

Argentina Programa Familias Bolivia Beca Futuro Brazil Bolsa Familia, Bolsa Escola Chile Chile Solidario Colombia Familias en Accion Program

Costa Rica Programa Superemonos Ecuador Bono de Desarrollo Humano El Salvador Red Solidaria Honduras Programa de Asignacion Familiar Mexico Progresa, Oportunidades

Nicaragua Red de Proteccion Social Brazil: Bolsa famila 2003 reached 3.6 million families with a budget of US$ 1.1 billion 2007 reaching 100% of its target of 11.1 million families (about 45 million people or a quarter of the countrys population) with a budget of over US$4.1 bn 2008: governments expenditures with the programme were estimated at US$6 bn

The programme raised participants income by 21% but by itself not enough to lift families out of poverty 19% reduction in poverty severity (the degree to which poor families fall below the poverty line) and a 21% fall in the Gini (income inequality) index between 1995 and 2004. increasing food and nutrition security in the country: 76% of the transfers spent on food, and families in the Bolsa Famlia programme have been able to improve their diets

Bolsa Famlia accounts for less than 3% of direct government transfers, and only 0.5% to 0.8% of the countrys GDP Africa Often a base of social security provisions for public sector workers and formal employees modelled on European systems Main features of the recent evolution: o Mainly cash transfers and largely unconditional o Number of pilot projects, few programmes at scale o Includes for example social pensions, productive safety nets and livelihood promoting measures (input subsidies) o Some government driven, some donor-driven, some hybrid government-donor partnerships

Unconditional Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa Ethiopia Productive Safety Nets Programme Largest social protection programme in SSA. Two objectives: 1. Smooth consumption and protect assets providing households with predictable and adequate transfers of cash and/or food 2. Build community assets (e.g. roads, soil and water conservations structures, schools) though labour intensive public works 1.

Combined with livelihood packages that protect and promote livelihoods and asset accumulation 2. In combination, two programmes are expected to facilitate graduation of households into food security South Africa: Grant for Older Persons: a social pension, reaches around 2 million beneficiaries with a monthly benefit or around USD

70 to beneficiaries. Eligibility: South African citizens and permanent residents, males from age 63 years (age threshold coming down) and women from age 60 years Must comply with the means test Until the introduction of the Child Support Grant, the social pension constituted the most important source of support for poor households. It is tax financed and currently absorbs around 1.4 per cent of GDP. South Africa: Child Support Grant Purpose:

To assist families with child care and education expenses Has become crucial in light of pervasive poverty and because of vulnerabiltiy as a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic Eligibility: applicant and child must reside in South Africa; applicant must be the primary care giver of the child/ children concerned; the child/children under 15 years; means tested Limit of six non biological children; South Asia South Asia

Major shift towards a new SP agenda came in the course of new governments around 2005ff in most of the regions countries Innovations in SP: Introducing social protection for the informal sector in India Social pensions in 4 countries Asset-based approaches (BRAC-type model) Making public employment programmes a right Social protection policy environment Some Some South South Asian Asian policy policy responses responses Direct food

transfers Cooked school meals (IND) Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD) Subsidized grain prices Social Assistance Universal old age pension (NPL) Benazir Income Support Program (PAK) Job Creation

National Rural Employment Guarantee (IND) Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD) Human rights Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND) Mid-day meal (IND) Employment Generation for hard core poor (BGD)

Child benefit (NPL) Unorganized sector health insurance (IND) Affirmative action Karnali Employment Program (NPL) Employment generation for rural unskilled workers Education for all (NPL) Child grants for girls (IND) Rural development and community

based interventions (IND) Right to education (all) Right to work (IND) Right to health services (all) Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL) National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme India Access to information Benazir Income Support Program (BISP)

2008 initial budget outlay of $500 million: largest direct cash grant scheme in Pakistans history 3.5 million economically distressed persons affected by poverty and inflation cash transfers of $13 per month paid every two months t poverty score card methodology (2010) National Database Registration Authority (NADRA) partnerships with private sector commercial banks EAST ASIA/SOUTHEAST ASIA

Major shifts in SP came in the wake of the 1998 Asian crisis In the aftermath, many governments introduced new SP interventions These are now being scaled up and systematised Indonesia: three clusters of poverty alleviation programmes Cluster 1: Family-based integrated social assistance programs Unconditional cash transfer, conditional cash transfer, rice for poor, Scholarship for poor families, Health insurance for the poor

Cluster 2: Community empowerment program Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM Mandiri), or Self Empowerment National Program Cluster 3: Development of micro and small enterprises Kredit Usaha Rakyat (KUR), or Peoples Credit Program 68 Indonesia: family-based social assistance programmes Program Name Transfer Type Target group (HHs) BLT

Unconditional Rice for Cash Transfer the Poor (2008-09) Cash Jamkesmas Health Protection Health Subsidized service fees Rice waived 17.5 Mn

HHs IDR 100,000 15 kg rice per month per month Key Ministry of executing Social Affairs (MoSA) agency BSM Scholarship for the Poor Cash PKH

Conditional Cash Transfer Cash & Conditions Students from poor HHs Very poor HHs 18.2 Mn HHs 8 Mn Students

1.5 Mn HHs Unlimited IDR 480,000 per year IDR 1,287,000 per year MoNE & MoRA MoSA Poor & near Poor & near Poor & near poor HHs poor HHs poor HHs

Number of beneficiari 18.7 Mn HHs es Benefit level Raskin Bureau of Ministry of Logistics Health (MoH) (BULOG) 69 Indonesia: national targeting system The National Targeting System identifies and chooses beneficiaries (households, individuals, etc.)

of targeted poverty reduction or social protection programs. Past system: each Beneficiary program has its own of Programs list of targeting Non-beneficiary system of Programs Now gradually moves into unified targeting system Minimizing inclusion &

exclusion errors Poor Not-Poor 70 Philippines: objectives of CCT o To raise the average o o o o consumption rate in food expenditure of poor households To increase the enrollment

in and attendance rate of children in school To improve preventive health care among pregnant women and young children To reduce the incidence of child labor To encourage parents to invest in their childrens (and their own) human capital through investments in their health and nutrition, education, and participation in community activities Selection Procedures of Target Households Geographical Targeting Household Assessment

(Enumeration) Selection of Poor Beneficiaries using Proxy Means Test Eligibility Check Philippines: key features & goals of CCT o Focused targeting o Not a stand alone o Social Assistance o Provide assistance to the poor o o o o o

o o o program/Utilizes Convergence Strategy Empowering of Women Promotive of Child Rights Builds Co-responsibilities/Social Contract Encourages Private-partnershipbuilding Automated information System Mainstreamed into the general operation of the Department to alleviate their immediate needs (short term). Social Development Break the intergenerational

cycle of poverty through investment in human capital i.e., education, health and nutrition (long term). Long-run poverty alleviation through investment in human capital. Philippines: CCT Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 7,107 Islands 92.3 M-Population 26.5 M. Pop Poor & poverty largely rural 8 Years behind target in poverty reduction/Medium probability of halving poverty by 2015 The Philippine

CCT is a rights based program that focuses on human capital investment through provision of health and education cash grants to eligible poor households. It is one of the poverty reduction strategies of the national government to enable poor households to meet certain human development goals aimed at breaking intergenerational cycle of poverty. 2007 - Findings on National Social Protection System Fragmented and Uncoordinated Inadequately funded & short-lived Weak targeting system Inadequate coverage Difficult impact assessment Cambodia: Scope of the NSPS Focusing on the Poor and Vulnerable

Social Protection for the Poor and Vulnerable 74 Gradual Gradualprogression progressiontowards towardscomprehensive comprehensivesocial social protection, protection,as asper perthe theNSPS NSPSlong-term long-termvision vision

2. Expanded social protection Social insurance (contributory) Pension Health insurance NSSF, NSSF-C (Social Security Fund) Social Socialprotection protectionfor for the thepoor poorand andvulnerable vulnerable

Civil servants Formal Workers Micro-insurance Community-based health insurance (social health protection) Social safety net (non-contributory): Public works programmes (food or cash for work) Cash or in-kind transfers (conditional or non-conditional) Social subsidies (to facilitate access to health, education, housing, public utilities) Complementary social welfare services Near poor Poor Special

Vulnerabl e Group 1. Basic social protection or Social Protection Floor 75 Linking SP and Employment WORKERS IN THE INFORMAL ECONOMY, THE WORKING POOR: Progressive inclusion in the labor market Higher social protection Higher Levels of S Protection Higher levels of income Access to Sustainable employment (Micro-Enterprise or Formal jobs)

Increase employability: human capital (health, education) + work experience & training Employment Services + Basic social protection Skills assessment & training Access to PWPs ; Job placement Business Development Services Access to health, education, food security Income security 76 4. Summary: Innovative social protection and a policy vision towards & beyond 2015 Paradigm has shifted: Surge in social protection over past 15 years, acknowledging inequities

Rights-based agenda advancing Emerging shifts: Connecting social services access with income guarantees Combining employment and decent work with social protection New approaches to socio-economic policy: decent work agenda formulated at ILO by governments, employers and workers understanding that work is a source of personal dignity, family stability, peace in

the community, democracies that deliver for people economic growth that expands opportunities for productive jobs and enterprise development Social protection innovations Commonalities Commonalities Draws on and gives space to civil society and public action Designed by government w civil society

content Establishes entitlements for socially excluded groups Tax financed Citizenship based Rights based 79 DISCUSSION II

What is the relationship between social protection and achieving each of the MDGs? What would be the role of social protection, Rec 202 and other issues in the development agenda after 2015? Task: MDG goal discussion by tables : hunger, poverty, employment, child & maternal health, education (10 minutes) Collect comments in plenary (10 minutes) Short debate and summary and closing outlook (10 minutes) Reading list Michelle Bachelet, 2011, Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization, report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO. ILO. www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/press-and-media- centre/news/WCMS_166292/lang--en/index.htm Armando Barrientos and Miguel Nino-Zarazua, Brooks World Poverty Institute, University of Manchester.. Social Transfers and Chronic Poverty. A Policy Analysis Research Project.

http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/research/socialtransfers/index.htm Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler 2004. Transformative Social Protection, IDS Working Paper 232. Brighton: IDS. www.ids.ac.uk Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, 2007. Debating Social Protection. Editorial Introduction. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp. 1-7. www.ids.ac.uk DFID, 2011, Cash Transfers. Evidence Paper. DFID Policy Division. London. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Articles/cash-transfers-evidence-paper.pdf EU, 2012. Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels 2012. page 5. http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/how/public-consultations/documents/stk_final_consultation_report_en.pdf Margaret Grosh et al. 2008, For protection and promotion: the design and implementation of effective safety nets. World Bank, Washington DC Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila.. http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2011/proceedings-enhancing-socialprotection.pdf. Naila Kabeer, 2010, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund. www.ids.ac.uk ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report. Providing Coverage in times of crisis and beyond. 2010-2011.

www.ilo.org ILO, 2011, Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. International Labour Conference, 101st Session, 2012. Report IV (1) . ILC.101/IV/1 http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/--relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_160210.pdf Gabriele Koehler, 2009, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy: 9. pp. 24-29, http://gsp.sagepub.com/content/9/1/24.full.pdf Gabriele Khler, Marta Cal, Mariana Stirbu. Rethinking Poverty and Social Exclusion Responses in Post-Conflict Nepal: Child-Sensitive Social Protection. Children, Youth and Environments 19(2), 2009. http://www.gabrielekoehler.net/publications.aspx Koehler, Gabriele 2011 Transformative Social Protection: Reflections on South Asian Policy Experiences. IDS bulletin. Special issue: Social Protection for Social Justice. Vol.42, Issue 6. http://www.ntd.co.uk/idsbookshop/ details.asp?id=1247 Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel and Stephen Devereux, 2007, Social Protection for Transformation. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp. 23-27. www.ids.ac.uk UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2010. Rethinking Poverty. Report on the World Social Situation 2010. United Nations, New York. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/rwss/2010.html UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ (1948) UNDP 2011. Human Development Report 2011. www.undp.org UNRISD, 2010. Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpPublications)/BBA20D83E347DBAFC125778200440AA7?

OpenDocument UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September 2010. A/64/L-72. www.un.org/MDGs World Bank 2012. RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Banks Social Protection and Labor Strategy 20122022. Washington April 2012. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/280558-1274453001167/70898671279223745454/7253917-1291314603217/SPL_Strategy_2012-22_FINAL.pdf contact Gabriele Koehler [email protected]

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