S.O. 2.11 - Examine perspectives on the imposition of liberalism
S.O. 2.11 Examine perspectives on the imposition of liberalism Ch. 9 Imposing liberalism The Story Thus Far: So far this unit, weve talked about the roots of liberalism, impacts of and responses to classical liberalism (socialism, Marxism), the
rejection of liberalism (communism, fascism), and the impact of ideologies in conflict (Cold War). In Chapter 9, we look at the imposition of liberalism and some of its effects Imposition of Liberalism: Warm Up Bill 16 - Distracted Driving Legislation Driver distraction is a growing traffic safety concern among policy makers and the public.
International studies have shown that 20 to 30 percent of collisions involve driver distraction. Alberta has taken a leadership role to address this serious traffic safety issue by recently passing Bill 16- the Traffic Safety (Distracted Driving) Amendment Act, 2010-to help make our roads safer. Highlights: Restricts drivers from: using hand-held cell phones texting or e-mailing
using electronic devices like laptop computers, video games, cameras, video entertainment displays and programming portable audio players (e.g., MP3 players) entering information on GPS units reading printed materials in the vehicle writing, printing or sketching, and personal grooming Complements the current driving without due care and attention legislation Applies to all vehicles as defined by the Traffic Safety Act including bicycles
Applies to all roads in both urban and rural areas of the province Questions: Is this law necessary? Is the punishment necessary? Sufficient? What is the desired result? Is there an alternative way to achieve the desired result? What will the effect of this legislation be? Is this an example of classical or modern liberal thinking?
Should liberalism be imposed on everyone? Imposing liberalism Imposition (or imposing) means forcing something on people whether they want it or not. Liberalism has been imposed on people at various points in history, sometimes with negative consequences
Today, well look at the imposition of liberalism in Canada and in other countries Aboriginal Experiences with Liberalism Aboriginal experiences of liberalism As we know, contact between First Nations in Canada and European settlers presented conflicting worldviews and ideologies. Most
European settlers brought with them liberal values and beliefs, while many First Nations believed in collectivist ideas Subsequently, values of liberalism would be imposed on Aboriginals in an attempt to assimilate them into mainstream Canadian society Different views on treaties First Nations
Government of Canada Treaties are agreements made between sovereign nations, upheld by oral tradition Treaties are agreements made by interested parties, upheld by a written document
Relationship with land is collective, spiritual. Land provided by Creator, and people exist in harmony with the land Land is a resource that can be owned by individuals for their own use
Treaties were established to share the land with newcomers Treaties were established to clear way for European settlement Attempts at Assimilation: Resistance by Aboriginals to liberal values was not accepted by the Canadian government. This led to
policies of assimilation, a plan to impose adherence to liberal goals on Aboriginals Under these policies Aboriginals were supposed to give up their distinct cultures and traditions, such as the potlatch Beausoleil First Nation members Richard Peters and Johnny Hawke were rebuffed from returning their Indian Status Cards at an Ontario Regional Indian Affairs Branch. People think their rights are tied solely to a Status Card that allows them to have all the little amenities we have, Peters told Indian Country Today Media Network. But by using these cards, it allows the government to continue to enforce the Indian Act on us. The Indian Act is the most racist (law).
Wearing a traditional ribbon shirt, Peters displayed his status card, adding that when he tried to relinquish status, he was warned he could lose both his aboriginal rights and his Canadian citizenship. Until you can prove youre sovereign, youre kind of stuck in a hole, he said. We dont want to be governed by this. We dont want to be under the Indian Act. The Indian Act of 1876 This act was used by government to control the behaviour of First Nations peoples and remove their traditions and customs. They were encouraged to leave their Indian status to become full citizens of Canada. They were
seen as children or wards of the state, who needed to be taken care of The Indian Act took away their collective rights through its policies of assimilation into the more individualistic liberal society Since 1876, the Indian Act has been amended several times, but has never been abolished. Some examples: 1884 prohibited religious ceremonies (potlatch, etc.) 1951 loss of Indian status for women who married nonstatus men 1969 The White Paper proposed by govt sought to
abolish all evidence of relations between Canada and First Nations. Purpose was to enable Aboriginals to become free members of Canadas liberal democracy, where the rights of the individual are more important than the collective 1969 Aboriginals respond by publishing the Red Paper, which objected to what they saw as the governments attempt to impose liberalism on them 1985 Women could keep or regain their status even after marrying a non-status man and children of such a marriage were granted status
The Indian Act affected female identity because women were removed from their traditional positions of power and importance. Gender inequality was partially removed with the ruling in 1985 that reinstated their status rights Land Claims and the Constitution Aboriginal Land Claims are a major concern for Canada going forward The government has not signed treaties with many of
Canadas First Nations even though they were dispossessed of their lands In 2007 there were 861 unsatisfied claims by 445 First Nations with 60 new claims being added on average each year Case Study: The Nisga The Nisga Final Agreement Land Claim settlement in 2000: Nisga granted complete control over their land
Nisga must grant reasonable public access Nisga laws that would restrict land use or resource use must be approved by the provincial and federal government Nisga must write a constitution to govern their people Important Aspects: Must be approved by referendum (70% Nisga
people must agree) Ability to make laws, create public institutions (hospitals and schools) and separate police board They are still subject to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and Criminal Code If Nisga law cannot conflict with provincial of federal law The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and Healing Fund Findings were published in 1996 stated that
Aboriginals in Canada must have the right to decide for themselves what they need including: The creation of legislation recognizing the sovereignty of Aboriginal Peoples The creation of institutions of Aboriginal self-government The creation of initiatives to address social, education, health, and housing needs Since 1996, many people have been critical of what they see as a lack of government action to address some of the recommendations concerns One positive result of the Commissions
recommendations was the creation of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Its mission is to encourage and support Aboriginals in their recovery from physical and sexual abuse that many suffered in the residential school system. To accomplish this, more than $400 million was awarded to various programs across Canada. The Assembly of First Nations has called the program a success Idle No More Idle No More Background
Idle No More is an ongoing protest movement originating among the Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprising the First Nations, Mtis and Inuit peoples and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada, and to a lesser extent, internationally. It has consisted of a number of political actions worldwide, inspired in part by the liquid diet hunger strike of Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence and further coordinated via social media. A reaction to alleged legislative abuses of indigenous treaty rights by the current federal government, the movement takes particular issue with the recent
omnibus bill Bill C-45. Idle No More Focus To date the movement has been particularly focused on: (A) The education and the revitalization of indigenous peoples through awareness and empowerment. (B) Encouraging knowledge sharing about indigenous sovereignty and environmental protections. The press release also notes that "As a grassroots movement, clearly no political organization speaks for Idle No More".
The imposition of liberalism in the world Should liberalism be imposed on everybody? What if another country or the United Nations invaded Canada, took control here, and tried to impose an ideology on Canada? This sounds unlikely, yet millions of people around the world has experienced a similar situation. Some people in war-torn countries
welcome peacekeepers, others do not Why should liberalism be imposed on those who do not want it? Two main reasons why one country may try and impose liberalism on another: National interest: imposing liberalism to eliminate or reduce terrorist threats or for reasons of economic interest Humanitarianism: imposing liberalism for moral or ethical reasons, such as to improve living conditions or to stop human rights violations
Imposing liberalism for National Interest At the end of WWI, U.S. President Wilson insisted that Germany and its allies had to agree to establish democratic governments as a condition of the peace treaties. His view was that democracy and self-determination had to be established in Europe as a basis for peace
Imposing liberalism by the use of force Some believe that if more countries embraced the ideology of liberal democracy, then the world would be a safer place. This belief was used to justify the war on terror after the 9/11 attacks. The U.S. and allies invaded Afghanistan to take the Taliban regime out of power (they had aided the 9/11 terrorists) Democratic elections were held in 2004 The U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003 based on the same premise. However, the war in Iraq did not receive international approval Imposing liberalism for humanitarian reasons
Some people believe that liberal countries should not tolerate non-liberal countries that deny their citizens human rights. Is intervention justified in these cases? Forceful intervention in a foreign country does not always guarantee improved living conditions for the citizens of that country. The U.S.-led war on terror was partly based on human rights issues. Under the Taliban, Afghan women were denied basic human rights, and Saddam Husseins reign over Iraq was characterized by fear, crimes against humanity, and brutal torture tactics
Reactions to the imposition of democracy Rwanda Western governments insisted that the country should have democratic elections. A coalition government was formed, and as a result conflicts between ethnic groups arose which led to the 1994 genocide One journalist compared the Wests attempts at imposing liberal democracy on other countries to the colonial rulers who forced Aboriginal peoples to replace their own governing systems with colonial systems
Indonesia After WWII, it was ruled as a military dictatorship. In 1998, the government faced an economic crisis; the IMF denied financial support in an attempt to force the country to use more democratic means. The countrys first parliamentary election was held in 1999 While the country faces ongoing challenges, Indonesians seem to have embraced the values of liberal democracy Soshould liberalism be imposed? Depends on a lot of factors
Tom Keating, a professor at the U of A, says that many of the violent conflicts in the world since WWI have occurred within countries such as Rwanda and Bosnia rather than between countries. Referring to Canadas foreign policy, Keating argues that the health of a countrys political institutions depends on its own citizens, not on foreign intervention Imposition Assignment: In small groups (1-4 max) do a quick research on a contemporary of historical example of a Western Nation that has attempted to
impose Liberalism on another people A. Briefly summarize the case study/example Who was involved? When did it happen? What happened?
Why did the western nation attempt to impose liberalism? How did the people upon which liberalism was imposed react? Was it successful? B. To what extent, and for whom, has the imposition of liberalism in your case study been successful? C. Was the imposition of Liberalism justifiable in your case study?
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